Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Challenges between a Muslim and non-Muslim after 9/11

There is tremendous tumult of voices after the news was aired. The media was centered on the busiest city of the world – New York. Even today many have not failed to raise a pen, even poets, artists, students and professionals, the unlearned and learned all are in awe. The sad destiny of those who perished at the Ground Zero can not be erased in memory and much more to those who were left behind. These are the Muslims and non-Muslims who still survived but are now living in the ashes of indifference, of terror and pain. Many are written about the issue but the three articles of Aidi, Marty and Asani is worthy to be discerned.The first article challenges plurality and the other speaks about fundamentalism and the last one equates Pan-Africanism to Islam. All of which are beliefs not only in terms of religion but a very specific knowledge by which man go through life which transcends his earthly existence. More than seven years ago, The Ground Zero boasted for its twin towers, e ach earthly dominion rested on their laurels, there could be havoc around on some parts of the world but a non-Muslim and a Muslim could occupy the same space without qualms or pretence.After the 9/11 when thousands of American citizens were slain, killings had also begun to the so called perpetuators akin. Vehemently, even if sin is personal the debt would be somehow carried on to the next generations. Man by destiny always inherits the sin of his first parents, as any good works are wagged which serves as inspirations for the younger ones? The challenges that Muslim and non-Muslim faces today is on how each one of them foster universality among their many diverse beliefs and how to remove the fears that those beliefs brought about which was clouded by the strand of hatred and ignorance.Today, co-existence between a Muslim and non-Muslim presupposed a barrier an unequal yoke so may say. The catastrophe left a mark of indifference that is antagonistic to both and it is no longer the hues we talked about but the creed of one nation between another. Succinctly, Muslims are even called the new niggers of today’s world of discrimination (Aidi, 2002). Moreover, it is not easy to justify pain because in the last analysis it is an evil that must be eradicated by all costs.It is only divine wisdom that can only justify pain and somehow alien to an understanding of a regular man. To the Muslims, a life well lived will serve as an example that his belief is not erroneous and he in his own belief wishes to co-exist with others. His belief in the Quran in the days that will come will be a challenge of its authenticity that the â€Å"noblest among you is the most god-fearing of you. (Quran 49:13). † Essentially when we say god-fearing man is the respecter of truth.Muslims, young and old is challenge by the world to live by its faith, and if god-fearing why the erroneous doctrine of that lone killer pilot blown in a blaze those two Manhattan skyscrapers? When in Quran 111 God is a respecter of freedom. God created man differently so that they may know and understand each other (Asani, 2003). The Muslims who have submitted to the truth has a great relevance to show the world the real essence and truth of their beliefs. They are the ones who should stand up and defend their faith on those who uses religiosity for personal gains and politics.Non-Muslims on the other hand, must seek the truth in defiance of prejudices and other extremes, with his Muslim brothers he must defend peace and pluralism that the country had earnestly guarded throughout the centuries. The Americas should test where he’s ground stand, if it is solid and firm and if its faith still rest in God. Non-Muslims, Christians and non-Christians and even due to ignorance are disbeliever of God, in the virtue of wanting to exist he must also be respectable to the life of others behaving in a fashion that still welcoming even in the face of odds.Martin Marty elaborated in his work â€Å"the Future of World Fundamentalisms† that we must make eschatological verifications or reaffirm if a movement does not lead to a polity that runs on compromises or any revivalism or reactivation of a militant Islamic tradition (Marty, 1998). Reactive agents according to Marty are inconspicuous, adaptive and improvisatory but are directly assertive. It is good to know what is under those rubrics of belief, whether that so called useful knowledge does not disdain its members of uncongenial acts worthy of suspicion.It is always good to know the wolf inside the sheep skin because a terrorized world can not afford to make the same mistakes again. Muslims and non-Muslim have one in common and that is to decipher the truth not only in terms of their religiosity and beliefs but on how each and every one lives a life of normal existence. The greatest challenge for the Muslim and non-Muslims in the post 9/11 is to unite in bringing this world to peace so the lives lost in the catastrophes are not wasted. Both must survive the struggle to be whole again in the fight of terrorism.Each one in whatever state in life must still nurture the gift of patience and kindness despite of confusion that is going on in this world. Man’s religion may have existed since civilization began and the only real truth about it was that the difference between a supernatural and human beliefs. Human beliefs tend to materialism and are bounded by space and corners while supernatural beliefs, leads to freedom and love. In fact, love is the only thing that stands still when all else has fallen.And only a true religion bears this sign. Charity removes obstacles, it builds bridges and any learning that is void of this elementary truth is a deceit. This is a great challenge not only to Muslims or non-Muslims to non-believers or future converts but to the whole world at large. Love makes a great difference to what is it that differentiates a human from a beast form and a goodish from a noble being. For a Muslim and a non-Muslim, there is no reason to fear because in their hearts the truth is already been written.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Isolationist Policy In The United States (1920’S And 1930’S) Essay

Isolationism pertains to the foreign policy that involves two major actions, non-intervention with regards to military actions and protection of economic activities. In the area of non-interventionism, the political leaders are observed to circumvent any coalitions with other countries as well as any participation in warfare and other forms of self-defense activities related to territories. In the area of protectionism, legal barriers are erected in order to regulate any exchanges related to trade and sharing of cultural information with individuals representing other states. The concept of isolationism is often mistaken as a non-interventionist way of thinking or philosophy and international policy associated with liberty, which entails unrestricted trading and traveling between individuals from any part of the world. It is thus best to employ the term libertarian isolationist as the policy of non-intervention or not participating with any activities or not getting associated with any political relations with a foreign country yet still retaining the capability of participating in free trade. The doctrine of non-participation of the United States through the refusal of entering into any form of alliance, agreement or commitment with a foreign country has been observed during different decades. Such isolationist policy is also coupled to the attempts of the United States to instill a sense of self-reliance based on a stable economy by dedicating efforts of the advancement of the country, in both routes of diplomacy and economics, while maintaining a condition of peace by keeping away from any associations with other countries and responsibilities. It is understood that developed countries generally engage in trade relations with other countries in order to expand its labor force as well as raise their standard of living based on the rise of the country’s economy. However, the United States is known to follow a protectionist policy which entails isolation from any form of engagement with trade relations with other countries. The leaders of the United States believe that such policy is beneficial to the United States, while economists express the opposite, that such policy is detrimental. Other critics have expressed that since the United States is recognized as the biggest consumer of the world and carries it own rich natural resources, it can identity specific conditions that should be applied to products and services that are brought into the country. This condition is the opposite of the free trade policy, which allows any country to perform any particular action that is recognized to be their expertise, and in turn benefit from the trading of their products. The adoption of the isolationist policy is the result of the conditions of a particular country, such as war, crises and uprisings that may originate from other countries. The isolationist policy adopted by the United States was mainly due to the effects of World War I, the Great Depression and the significant influx of immigrants. The decades of the 1920’s and the 1930’s were characterized by the isolationist conditions in the United States, wherein there was social seclusion from any form of engagement with countries around the world. The coined attitude, known as the Red Scare, was based on the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. In this setting, Americans gave more focus into instilling tranquility in their homes, more than providing efforts in achieving and instilling peace in other countries. It has been described that the United States adopted the isolationist policy because the country was already exhausted by global issues at that time. With this in mind, the political leaders of the United States were very anxious in staying away from issues and associated effects of war. This can be observed in the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which stated that war was outlawed as a tool for international policy. In a public address given by Warren G. Harding in the 1920’s, it was expressed that a supergovernment is the least of the United States’ dream and in turn, attention should be given to national issues instead. It was also stated that adopting the isolationist policy is not selfish, but is actually a form of sanctity. The result of the Treaty of Versailles is another example of the adoption of the isolationist policy by the United States in the 1920’s and 1930’s. In this case, the U. S. Senate did not agree to ratify the Treaty which states that the United States would engage in the League of Nations. The United States’ refusal to approve this Treaty showed the contempt of the U. S. over concepts of idealism at the international level, because the United States feels that engaging in this Treaty would eventually lead the country to war. The United States then was actively expressing the war is a contagious disease which can spread around the world at a very fast pace. With this stand, the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937 were created, which prevents the re-emergence of ties between the United States and any war actions or policies (Doenecke, 1982). The many faces of isolationism are clearly shown during the 1920’s and the 1930’s. During these decades, the political and social views and American policy were turned towards isolationism, such as the increasing fear of communism, exhaustion from the idea of war, and the anti-radical hysteria. In the next decades such as the 1950’s, these same socialist isolationist views were also evident, but this time the political policy was turned towards and internationalist point of view. Isolationism, however radical in concept, resulted from the circumstances in which it was derived from. Reference Doenecke JD (1982): American Isolationism, 1939-1941. Journal of Libertarian Studies, Summer/Fall 6(3):201-216.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Public administration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Public administration - Essay Example According to Chambers (2003), in a democratic system, the majority impose their will on the minority who in essence has no protection against the more often unlimited power of the majority. All the eligible citizens have by right, equal participation in proposing, developing or creating laws by which their society is run, either directly or through elected representatives. In a democratic system of government, the Majority wields absolute and unlimited power and their decisions cannot be appealed under the established legal system that gives effect to this form of government. More often than not, this opens the door to unlimited tyranny perpetuated by the majority. As Persson & Tabellini (2006) notes, democratic systems usually take two forms; direct democracy and representative democracy. In the former, citizens participate in all decision-making personally without relying on their representative. The voting population hence has the power to alter constitutional laws, bring forth initiatives or suggestions on law governing them and also institute binding orders against their elected officials such as recalling them even before their terms end for non-performance. They can also take the form of representative democracy whereby people vote in representatives or officials who then come up with initiatives on their behalf Democracies are more often concerned with group wants or needs in terms of public good. Attitude towards law in a democratic institution is that the will of the majority shall prevail, whether it is governed by emotions without regard to consequences or based upon deliberation. Law making in a democratic form of governance is a rapid process requiring the approval of the majority as determined by voter referendums or polls. More often these referendums give legislators the opportunity to blame faulty laws on the people. On the other hand a

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Is Technology an Addiction or an Essential Device in Our Everyday Research Paper

Is Technology an Addiction or an Essential Device in Our Everyday Lives - Research Paper Example Is Technology an Addiction or an Essential Device in Our Everyday Lives? The intent of this brief analysis will be to understand whether or not the way in which humanity currently interacts with technology is on the whole helpful or harmful – or whether it exhibits key aspects of what can be understood to be an unhealthful and addictive relationship of dependence. Firstly, it does not take a great deal of analytical or scientific discovery to realize that the way in which technology has reshaped and classified our world is without question. Moreover, a sociological increase into the way in which technology has shifted interpersonal dynamics, relationships, and communication has been conducted by a variety of researchers and convincingly pointed to the fact that the current era of texting, instant messaging, Facebook et al has significantly decreased the amount of time that individuals spend in face-to-face communication and has moved society convincingly towards something of a more introverted nature. Although introversion in and of itself is not n ecessarily a poor character trait, it must be noted that the overuse and reliance upon these technological tools which have already been discussed has created a dynamic by which formerly extroverted individuals are merely introverted and carrying out a great deal of interpersonal communication that one might otherwise carry out face-to-face via the Internet or other technologically enabled means (Bosetti, 2010). However, communication is not the only thing that suffers from an overdependence upon technology. As will be discussed next, memory recall and the perennial knowledge that any and all information can be readily retrieved has created a situation in which memory and the ability to recall tidbits of information are placed at a much lower premium than they might have been in an era in which the likes of Google or other prominent technological means by which data can be retrieved had existed. Again, it does not take a great deal of imagination to envision an era in which it was n ecessary for the schoolchild, or even societal shareholder, to be nominally familiar and remember such information as capitals of states, a rough understanding and appreciation for the order and number of presidents, how many chromosomes exists in human DNA, who the first woman in space was, for the year in which the state of Israel was created (Schimmenti & Caretti, 2010). As can be seen, there is something to be said for the amount of memory recall that individual can possess and leverage as a means of readily interjecting key understandings and tidbits of fact, data, and history into conversations and pertinent situations. However, with an overdependence upon technology has, situation in which individuals have placed this premium of memory and recall far down on the list of priorities; choosing instead to merely â€Å"Google that† or â€Å"look that up† (Ozcinar, 2011). It should be noted that there is nothing wrong with an individual relying upon technology as a me ans of achieving relevant levels of data or facts that they might not otherwise be familiar; yet, what has transpired is a situation in which data and factual recollection have so far decreased in value that the likes of Google and the other technological giants that exist within the current paradigm have come to supersede this basic and in innate human capacity

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The American National Security Issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The American National Security Issue - Essay Example The previous weeks, the refinement of ‘no military solution to Islamist problem’ mantra, came from the admiral, who is also the public spokesman of the Pentagon. In his press conference with the journalist, something akin to America is fighting an ideology that military power had no ability to defeat came out (Byman, 2014). No questions concerning the ideology materialized on the spoken date with the journalists. From the above events, it is easier to conclude that neither the journalist nor the admiral has ever came across the notion called National Socialism. The National Socialism, utterly overcome by the military ability of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. In addition to the above, the American Civil War by Grant Sheridan and Sherman used unrelenting military force to guarantee individual rights and freedom. In my view, the Islamic State is one of the many United States military ally. The view of the politicians that the military is not worth a tinker in fighting the mujahideen rebels is a cover up of the truth. One of the underlying factors to these sentiments, is on the fact that the larger organization of the IS holds large arrays of material assets that are more likely to get permanently destroyed if aerial attacks occur (Byman, 2014).

Monday, August 26, 2019

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research Paper

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Research Paper Example During these prolonged incidents of best rest, elderly adults incur an increased risk for pressure ulcers. Other chronic conditions also present a similar risk of prolonged bed rest including osteoarthritis and cancer. This issue is being reviewed because pressure ulcers are preventable conditions, especially if the adequate nursing management remedies are in place. There are, however, factors or issues which impact on the management of pressure ulcers. This review now, therefore, seeks to evaluate the effective management of pressure ulcers among elderly patients with chronic diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), about 160,000 nursing home residents have had pressure ulcers, with Stage 2 pressure ulcer being the most common affliction. Residents who were more than 64 years of age were also likely to suffer from this issue and those who have had shorter hospital stays (one year or less) were also more likely to suffer from pressure ulcers, as c ompared to those who have stayed in nursing homes for longer durations (CDC, 2011). About one in five of these elderly patients with pressure ulcers have gone through weight loss and about 30% of these residents had to receive special wound care services for their health issue. In general, pressure ulcers are attributed to unrelieved pressure on the skin and often develop over bony protrusions. They are also serious medical issues and a common issue encountered among patients in nursing homes. About 2-28% of nursing home elderly patients are suffering from pressure ulcers and these ulcers are graded from stage 1 to stage 4 depending on the range of skin breakage seen on the ulcers. In about 1.5 million nursing home patients, 160,000 have been diagnosed with pressure ulcers at one point during their residence.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Small Business Enterprise Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Small Business Enterprise - Assignment Example around 54 employees but has been voted by the Sunday times as the top ranked till managed to in its own respect. It is a small private firm that is based in London and has been established in the year 2009 (Best Companies, 2013). It is a great matter of pride for the company as the staff turnover is quite less. Moreover, the company is seen to employ young candidates who are of the age of 29 on an average. Considering all of these aspects, it can be said that small businesses if properly managed can lead to smooth flow of the business activities. In this respect, another small business i.e. TPP SystmOne which is specialized in delivering internet services to the consumers’ (Goundrey-Smith, 2012). TPP has been considered to be the best company for a fourth time pertaining to the review of the Sunday Times. Moreover, the company has also been bestowed with a special award as the best improver in the division of internet services. Moreover, it has been ascertained that the compan y has been heading towards the roadway of success. 1.1 Strengths/Weaknesses of the two companies In relation to Strengths/Weaknesses of Cloudreach, it can be said that the company operating with such a small number of employees and getting recognized at a larger scale is one of the major strengths of the company (Cloudreach, 2013). Another aspect that represents the strengths of the company is that it has been able to grab the top position for the cloud computing services that it renders to its customers’. Moreover, the company is responsible for providing a wide array of services namely: migration services, services relating to application development, managed services and consultancy services among others. The aforementioned services being rendered by the company reflects about its accelerated strengths irrespective of its size. In keeping up with the fact about the company’s strength, it assists in maintaining sustainability within the competitive market scenario. H owever, the small size and less employee turnover can be considered as the weakness of the Company i.e. Cloudreach. In relation to the aspects associated with this factor, it can be said that if the company plans for following expansion strategies in the near future then its small size may prove to be a hindrance in its growth (Cloudreach, 2013). On the other hand, the company i.e. TPP SystmOne endures certain major strengths that will enable the company to be in a much favourable position in near future. The company is mainly responsible for developing high end software that delivers fruitful sources of information to numerous health professionals around the world. This factor adds up to the strengths of the company to a greater extent (TPP SystmOne, 2013). The major weakness of the company can be considered as the small size. This factor can prove to be quite disadvantageous for the company if it goes for an expansion in diversified field worldwide. Furthermore, the company is spe cialized in the field of medicines and provides useful information pertaining to the best use of medicines. It does not reflect much diversity in its services which can prove to be a major weakness for the company (Beisse,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Advantages and disadvantages of team and individual teaching Article

Advantages and disadvantages of team and individual teaching - Article Example Teaching in a team actually means a group of teachers, decisively working with each other on regular basis to facilitate students in groups in order to acquire knowledge about various subjects. The instructors in team teaching cooperate with one another and make use of the particular skills and abilities of each instructor. This approach of teaching boosts up the student-teacher interaction, allowing both of them to evaluate each other. Contradictory to individual teaching, the goals are set by the consensus of team members and the methods and strategies of teaching are also set by the line of reasoning among the group members, helping to bring about the best of it. (Judson T Shaplin; Henry F Olds, 1964) The students may learn more profoundly by team teaching approach as more than one experts of the very topic defines it with a different approach. It helps to understand the topic from various frames of references. This approach helps to get rid of students-teacher personality problems. Presence of another team mate abates the yoke of work from the teachers and motivates them more towards their profession. Team working distributes the responsibility, encourages creativity, and brings effectiveness in teaching. (Medill Bair; Richard G Woodward, 1964) However, sometimes this approach is not adapted by the experts. Since, groups are not every time as good as we assume them to be. Often, teachers do not prefer to teach in teams, due to different reasons.

Describe & evaluate the effects of 2 drugs on the functioning of Essay

Describe & evaluate the effects of 2 drugs on the functioning of neurotransmitters - Essay Example It is four times stronger, than morphine. But the feeling, to which drug addicts strive, is just a side effect for medicine. This ‘side effect’ is displayed through better mood – euphoria, accompanied by the feeling of indifference to the environment, drowsiness, feeling of warmth, heaviness and relaxation in body and extremities. ‘Heroin – is the warmth, sweet warmth, which seems to be growing out of your body. At first it seems you are pregnant with this warmth, it is like a tender life under your skin, and this ‘live warmth’ fills your body with heaviness, the wish to move disappears together with all other wishes, the only wish is to lay and listen to this warmth†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Carnwath 2002, p. 23) Fast and powerful effect of heroin on the nervous system is connected with the fact that it penetrates to it easier, than other drugs do. The thing is, that nature has created a special barrier for the protection of the main human organ – brain, and this barrier allows far not all substances to reach the nervous cells (in medicine this barrier is called ‘blood-brain barrier’). The structure of heroin’s molecule allows it to easily penetrate though this blood-brain barrier and quickly accumulate in brain. As soon as heroin appears in the brain, it as if ‘throws down’ its capsule and turns into morphine. It appears that the main difference of heroin from morphine is in its transport capsule, which allows it to instantly penetrate into the nervous system, causing the abundance of electromagnetic impulses. (Carnwath 2002, p. 49) The thing is that some parts of heroin’s molecules are similar to those of natural substances, produced by the nervous system – the so-called endorphins. In the normally working brain such substances work as delicate regulators of emotional and intellectual human activity. The content of these substances in the drug is much higher, than the nervous system needs for normal activity. And the main thing is that it is

Friday, August 23, 2019

Female Gentinal Mutilation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Female Gentinal Mutilation - Research Paper Example The paper shall also at times adopt a postcolonial approach to demonstrate the different forces that affect the creation of social forces the way they are. The paper shall, in the ultimate analysis, denounce the practice of female genital mutilation as it is a corrupt practice that impinges on the freedom of women. It shall look at the views of various theorists of Female Genital Mutilation. It shall also look at theorists like Michel Foucault, Amartya Sen, Edward Said and Ngugi wa Thiongo so as to understand the sociological and symbolic, economic, cultural and postcolonial aspects of the problem that Genetic mutilation presents. The problem, finally, needs a holistic solution that shall talk of the need to delink power from sexuality as much as possible. It shall also argue for an altered means of production in postcolonial societies. This is what shall lead to freedom, sexual and economic. Female Circumcision and its Abolition Female circumcision is practiced in many cultures acro ss the world. There are many reasons that are often advanced in favor of this practice and many of them are considered to stem from customary practices of a particular community. However, there are several aspects of this issue that make this situation a complex one. An analysis of this issue needs to take into account what is religiously sanctioned and what is the result of customs that are peculiar to a certain community. For this purpose, it is important to note the differences that arise in different communities that practice circumcision. It also becomes necessary to look at the importance of the differences between the practices of female and male circumcision to understand the impact that patriarchy has upon the custom. This institution has persisted in times of modernity as well. This modernity was inspired largely by European notions of the same. Discussions into the practice of female circumcision shall also lead to a discussion of this modernity. Since much of these notio ns were introduced into non-European cultures through the process of colonization, it is also important to analyze the impact of colonization on the processes of the culture formation in nations that were erstwhile colonies. The persistence of this phenomenon despite the introduction of so many changes to the culture of a place speaks volumes about the entrenched quality of patriarchy in these parts of the world. The phenomenon of genital mutilation can thus be linked to patriarchy and the protests against it can be looked at through a feminist perspective. This may seem like a very obvious point but it needs to be made. This is because it enables one to employ feminist perspectives to critique the practice of genital mutilation. These perspectives would enable one to present one’s critique in a systematic fashion. This paper shall attempt to do so and argue in this context that corrupt practice such as circumcision of Muslim women should be abolished. Female Genital Mutilati on and the Youth of a Nation One of the most important aspects of the abolition of female circumcision is the fact of it happening through the youth of a nation. This would fuel a larger change in the society where it happens by effecting a collective change that would lead to not just legal changes but also to changes in the mentalities of people (Palmieri and Mottin-Sylla, 2011). The change in female circumcisi

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Tyler Perry Exploits Black America Essay Example for Free

Tyler Perry Exploits Black America Essay Actor, director, playwright, screenwriter, producer and, author Tyler Perry has taken Hollywood by storm. Perry has grossed close to $500 million in domestic box office receipts since 2005 (Smith) with his stage plays that have been turned into movies. Being ranked by Forbes magazine as the sixth highest-paid man in Hollywood (Daniels), Tyler Perry has revolutionized black entertainment by becoming the first black man to own a major movie and television studio in Atlanta, GA (Walker). I like Tyler Perry and enjoyed his early stage productions and films such as â€Å"Daddy’s Little Girl’s† and â€Å"The Family that Preys†. However, I struggle with his portrayal of black people, more specifically on his TBS television show, â€Å"House of Payne†. Perry’s â€Å"House of Payne† exploits African Americans as entertainment, combining slap stick comedy with regressive stereotypes with characters such as Curtis the Coon, Ella the Mammy, Janine the Drug Addicted, selfish Mother and Calvin the â€Å"Happy Negro†, remedial Player. I plan to deconstruct the â€Å"House of Payne† to reveal its minstrelsy nature and demonstrate how â€Å"House of Payne† does nothing to counteract racial assumptions that black people are ignorant, hip hopping, over weight jigaboos that are nothing more than comic relief. Tyler Perry supporters, who are mostly black, church going women, feel as though they can relate to Perry’s characters, strong Christian messages, and are happy that Perry keeps black actors on the big screen, and on television (Smith). Much has been said about Tyler Perry’s â€Å"House of Payne† and how it is a new millennium minstrel show. Minstrel shows consisted of white male actors, in black face that performed what they perceived as blackness. Performers of blackface interpreted blacks to be lazy, buffoonish, cowardly characters that often lied, stole and mangled the English language (Stark). Ultimately minstrel company owners hired black men and women, emphasizing that their ethnicity made them the only true delineators of black song and dance (Mahar). Black minstrels added religious themes to their shows while whites shied from that made them a popular hit amongst other blacks. Once minstrel shows began to decline in popularity, blackface continued by way of film (Mahar). One of the most notable actors was Lincoln Theodore Monroe Andrew Perry, also known as â€Å"Stepin Fetchit†. Although he was the first black actor to become a millionaire, the persona of â€Å"Stepin Fetchit†was the quintessential lazy, foolish, shucking and jiving Negro (White). Film critic, Armond White in his essay The Rehabilitation of Stepin Fetchit† asserts: â€Å"Should African-American performers be accountable to political correctness? To what degree should they worry that their antics shape the self-image of young African-Americans? Should they follow any standard other than their own conscience? Should they have a conscience? The psychological rationale for racism cuts two ways—flattering whites and defaming blacks—and it rebounded upon Stepin Fetchit and stained his soul. â€Å" Whites projected stereotypes onto black people and now we help them out: the buffoon, the Mammy and the Jezebel have been replaced with the ghetto fabulous drama queen, the feminized male, the thug and the dope fiend. Television is a powerful agent of information that not only shapes our way of seeing the world, but influences how we view and understand differences (Ford). The stereotyping of African Americans can partly be attributed to television limiting black actors to roles to jezebels, street punks, simple minded servants, and violent criminals. With the success of the Tyler Perry brand, Todd Boyd, Professor of Critical Studies at USC School of Cinematic Arts, asserted that Tyler Perrys works â€Å"are rooted in some of the worst stereotypes that have ever existed† (Svetkey, Watson, Wheat). Donald Bogle, author of Toms, Coons, Mulatoes, Mammies Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films, tends to agree: If a white director put out this product, the black audience would be appalled. The main characters in â€Å"House of Payne† are a married couple Curtis and Ella Payne, who are comparable to Ol’ Darkie and his counterpart Mammy in various minstrel shows. ‘Old Darky’ or ‘Old Uncle’ was usually the head of the black family (Stark), just as Curtis is the patriarch on the â€Å"House of Payne†. Curtis or Uncle Curtis is known for his loud over the top delivery, grumpiness, and brash jokes. Coons, are a source of amusement because they are complete buffoons (Toll). Every episode the audience can expect a slap stick performance from Curtis ranging from slapping of other cast members to the tumping his toe and falling over a chair. Ella is the exact replica of Mammy, which is one undeniable fixture in any Tyler Perry production. Ella is dark skinned, overweight, a great cook and singer and is the religious glue that holds the family together. Ella’s matronly demeanor causes for her well- liked by everyone and will put Curtis in his place when he gets irate. Tyler Perry replaces Mammy’s head wrap and apron and puts Ella in clothing that only exaggerates her unhealthy size. One episode, Curtis and Ella go on diets because they are at risk for diabetes and heart attacks. Curtis, who himself is obese, foolishly does a single jumping jack and falls out as if he just ran a marathon and hides snacks and fried food all over the house. Ella, who sticks to the diet for a few days constantly, nags Curtis about the risk factors. The story looks to be headed in a motivational direction as African Americans are twice more likely to develop diabetes than white people (CDC), however the scene ends with both of them abandoning their diets and exit to get a fried chicken sandwich (Perry). Curtis and Ella have a son, Calvin Payne who lacks common sense, motivation, yet is a self-proclaimed ladies’ man. Calvin is similar to â€Å"Happy Negro† who seems to relish in his stupid and immature nature (Stark) that causes any scheme or idea of his own to greatly backfire. Perry relies heavily on the well-worn stereotypes that black people have been subject to and Calvin is another Tyler Perry pattern. Calvin has had numerous relationships throughout the show and eventually gets married to Miranda, but finds out he’s fathered a child out of wedlock with an ex-girlfriend Tracie at the same time his wife reveals she too is pregnant. Perry strips Calvin of a dignified title of married man, father-to-be and to the stereotypical black man who is a low down, cheating â€Å"Baby Daddy†. In the doctor office scene where Calvin, Miranda and Tracie coincidently cross paths, Calvin is surprised that he has a son and asininely asks â€Å"how’d this happened? † The racists Dr. Marcos (who calls Tracie â€Å"Bonqueisha and Soul Sister†) scientifically dissertates that â€Å"when black people are poor, uneducated, unemployed and can’t play basketball, they have nothing to do but have sex† (Perry) and the laugh track spits out entertaining cackle. Where is the humor in that punch line? While some audience members can point out that we all know someone like that what Perry lacks is any compassion or ability to humanize these characters making them a moral, baby making caricatures (Smith). According to the CDC, at the end of 2007, blacks accounted for almost half (46%) of people living with a diagnosis of HIV infection in the 37 states and that is no laughing matter (CDC). Tyler Perry has been quoted saying that his characters are based off of real life people, especially the women he saw growing up as a young boy in New Orleans (Lapowsky). I believe that Perry’s work is a reflection of what he saw as a youth, however I agree with critics like Spike Lee and Edris Elba who maintain that it’s time for Perry’s work to be elevated and cease with the â€Å"coonery and buffoonery† (Svetkey, Watson, Wheat) as Perry’s work continuously delivers monolithic characters that are satirical at best. The House of Payne storyline takes place with three generations living under one roof because Janine, the wife of CJ who is also Curtis’ nephew, burns down their house to claim the insurance money to fuel her crack cocaine habit. She can be compare to the â€Å"wrench† or â€Å"Yaller Gal† who through the show, deserts her family to live as a dope fiend, then after she is rehabilitated, divorces CJ and becomes pregnant by a new man. The boyfriend is revealed to be sterile and after a drunken one night stand with CJ, process of elimination proves CJ is the father. Janine and CJ eventually remarry and by the final season, Janine flirts with the idea of having an affair with her boss. To protect the black women, you must also protect how she is being depicted regularly (Haven). White women are casted in various roles, however dating back to minstrelsy, black women are type casted as loud mouth, promiscuous, drug addicted breeders. It has nothing to do with talent, but choices by the studios and decision makers like Tyler Perry to determine what is projected. The entertainment business is just that, a business. As does any business, the entertainment industry relies heavily on supply and demand. If there is a demand, it is supplied. The support of Tyler Perry proves that there a demand for black entertainment. At the end of his stage play â€Å"Madea’s Family Reunion†, Perry as himself, addressed the audience saying â€Å"as long as yall wanna see Madea, I’ma do Madea† (Perry). In essence, as long as black people keep supporting Tyler Perry shows like â€Å"House of Payne†, he’ll keep feeding his audience the same chitterlings and cornbread. Tyler Perry has capitalized off â€Å"House of Payne† as he exploits stereotypes of African Americans. There are other ways to make us laugh and make money. Until black American stops clinging to such degrading material and demand more substance and social responsibility, just as those before us did with minstrel shows and blackface, Tyler Perry will fill the demand with more characters like Curtis, Ella, Calvin and Janine.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Benefits of Balanced Scorecard Implementation

Benefits of Balanced Scorecard Implementation Introduction Business organizations are facing increasingly complex markets, customers and suppliers, and fierce global competitive pressures. In such competitive environment, access to the right information is important to ensure high quality decision making and thus, the success of the organization. Resulting from the changing needs of information in a competitive environment, pressure was put on accounting information to increase its relevance. Extensive and exclusive use of financial measures has been criticised due to their historic nature. Financial measures reveal a great deal about an organisations past actions but nothing about its future alertness. Exclusive reliance on financial indicators could promote behaviour that sacrifices long term value creation for short term performance (Dearden, 1969). Indeed, an overemphasis on achieving and maintaining short term performance can cause a company to overinvest in short term fixes and underinvest in sustainable value creation, which would be detrimental to its future success. In an attempt to remedy the shortcomings of financial performance measures, Kaplan and Norton (1992) devised the Balanced Scorecard which integrates financial and non financial strategic measures. The Balanced Scorecard will be discussed in this paper focusing on what the Balanced Scorecard is, the theory underlying it and how it is being practiced. The manner in which the Balanced Scorecard is practiced in two companies, namely Metro Bank which is adapted from Kaplan and Norton (1996) and Asia Telecom, a telecommunication company whose name is disguised to preserve confidentiality is also discussed in this paper. What is the Balanced Scorecard? The Balanced Scorecard is a tool, which systematically expands the measurement areas traditionally involved in accounting. It provides a system for measuring and managing all aspects of a companys performance. The scorecard balances financial measures of success with non financial measures of drivers of future performance. These non financial measures include measures on customer satisfaction, internal processes, the organisations innovation and improvement activities. The Balanced Scorecard measures organizational performance across four different but inter-related perspectives: financial, customer, internal and learning and growth perspectives (Atkinson, Kaplan and Young, 2004). The Balanced Scorecard, as devised by Kaplan and Norton (1992), is thus a balanced performance measurement system that enables companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring how they are building their capabilities with customers, internal processes, employees and systems for future growth and profitability. It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). The Balanced Scorecard is a comprehensive framework that translates a companys vision and strategy into a coherent set of performance measures. It is an integral part of an organizations strategy execution process that emphasizes communicating strategy to employees and providing feedback to help attain objectives. The scorecard can be used at different levels of an organization. For each level, the Balanced Scorecard approach identifies the key components of operations, sets goals for them, and finds ways to measure progress toward achieving these goals. Taken together, the measures provide a holistic view of performance both inside and outside the organization, and allow each constituent of the organization to see how his or her activities contribute to attaining the organizations overall mission (Von Bergen and Benco). Essentially, the Balanced Scorecard measures are used to translate vision and strategy into concrete directions for action by people throughout the organization. The measures prescribe a plan for strategic execution and create focus for the future. The measures communicate important messages to all organizational units and employees and thus, influence their actions. To take full advantage of this power, companies soon integrated their new measures into a management system (Kaplan and Norton, 2001). Thus, the Balanced Scorecard concept evolved from a performance measurement system to a strategic management system. The strategic management system focused the entire organization on implementing long term strategy by aligning and supporting key processes. The essence of the above discussion can be summarized using Atkinson, Kaplan and Youngs (2004) definition. The Balanced Scorecard is a strategic management system that translates an organizations strategy into clear objectives, measures, targets and initiatives organized by four perspectives. These four perspectives and other principles underlying the Balanced Scorecard will be discussed in the next section of this paper. The Balanced Scorecard: Theory The Balanced Scorecard is based on several underlying premises. The first is that financial measures alone inadequately measure the health of a company and that a single-minded pursuit of financial objectives could lead to long-term ruin. The second is that Balanced Scorecard focuses on process, not metrics. As such, it is forward-looking (e.g., How can our organization retain its best customers?) rather than backward-looking (e.g., What were our organizations earnings per share last quarter?). The third is that the scorecard is an analytic framework for translating a companys visions and business strategies into specific, quantifiable goals and for monitoring performance against those goals (Von Bergen and Benco). The Balanced Scorecard framework consists of four perspectives of which the organizations performance is measured. Across organizations, the relevant Balanced Scorecard components vary depending on the organizations specific goals and circumstances. There is no theory that four perspectives are necessary and sufficient for an effective balanced scorecard. However, there is some agreement that a typical BSC would include the following four components in some form (Horngren, Foster, Srikant, 2000): Learning and growth perspective: Can the firm continue to improve and create value for customers? Internal business process perspective: In which capabilities must the firm excel? Customer perspective: How do customers see the firm? Financial perspective: How does the firm look to providers of financial resources? The financial perspective Kaplan and Norton do not disregard the traditional need for financial data. Indeed, the ultimate objective for profit-seeking companies is a significant increase in shareholder value. Financial performance measures indicate whether the companys strategy, implementation and execution are contributing to its profitability. Financial objectives typically relate to profitability and measured, for example, by economic value added, return on investment or net profit. Companies increase economic wealth through two basic approaches revenue growth and productivity. Revenue growth comes from either growing wider (new products, markets and customers) and/or from growing deeper by achieving more price or volume from existing relationships. Productivity comes from reducing the cost structure, and/or the fixed and working capital required to support the business. The customer perspective The customer perspective is about the identification of the customer and market segments in which the company will compete and the measures of the companys performance in these targeted segments. Typical core measures of the successful outcomes from a well-formulated and implemented strategy include customer satisfaction, customer retention, new customer acquisition, customer profitability and market and account share. Beyond these measures, the companies must also identify the objectives and measures for customer value proposition, which describes the unique mix of product, price, service, relationship and image that a company offers its targeted group of customers. Customer value proposition that defines how company meets the needs of its customers vis-Ã  -vis its competitors is essentially a differentiation strategy. There are three generally acknowledged generic value proposition: Operational Excellence is characterized and differentiates itself by a combination of products/services that provide quality, selection, and competitive prices, and order fulfillment capability that is fast and timely. Customer Intimacy is characterized and differentiates itself by the quality and personalization of its relationship with its customers. Product Leadership is characterized and differentiates itself by the functions, features, and overall performance of its products and services. The value proposition is crucial because it helps an organization connects its internal processes to improved outcomes with its customers. The internal business process perspective Once the financial and customer perspectives are identified, the critical internal processes in which the organization must excel to achieve its objectives are defined. These processes enable the organization to deliver the value propositions that will attract and retain customers in targeted market segments and achieve productivity improvements for the financial objectives. Since organizations perform many different processes, it is useful to group the processes into four groups: Build the franchise by spurring innovation to develop new products and services and penetrate new markets and customer segments. Increase customer value by expanding and deepening relationships with existing customers. Achieve operational excellence by improving supply-chain management, internal process, asset utilization, resource-capacity management and other processes. Become a good corporate citizen by establishing effective relationships with external stakeholders. Measures of these processes allow managers to evaluate how well their business is running, and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements (the mission). The learning and growth perspective This perspective describes the infrastructure necessary for the achievement of the objectives identified in the other three perspectives. Under this perspective, objectives for the people, systems and organizational alignment that create long term growth and improvement are identified. The objectives for these three components normally lie in the following areas: Employees capabilities Does the employees possess the appropriate level of skill and knowledge to perform the work/function required to achieve strategy? Information system and database Is the information system and database available to provide excellent information to employees for process improvement required? Organization alignment Corporate culture and climate Do employees have the awareness and understanding of the vision, strategy and cultural values needed to execute strategy? Goal alignment Are goals and incentives aligned with the strategy at all level? Knowledge sharing Do employees and teams share best practices and other knowledge relevant to strategy execution? This perspective ultimately emphasizes the role of intangible assets people, system, climate and culture in driving organizational capabilities for learning and long term growth. Strategy Map A strategy map is a comprehensive visual representation of the linkages among objectives in the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard. Each objective in the four perspectives is portrayed in a cause and effect relationship where gains in the learning and growth perspective lead to improvements in internal business processes, which in turn lead to higher customer satisfaction and market share, and finally to superior financial performance. The strategy map tells the story of the companys strategy. It identifies for employees and management the importance of each perspective as a feeder of success into the next perspective. It also identifies and makes explicit the hypotheses about the cause and effect relationship between outcome measures (lag indicators) for example, customer satisfaction and return on investment, and performance drivers (lead indicators) for example, motivated and skilled employees, short cycle time processes and product development processes (Atkinson, Kaplan and Young, 2004). Lagging indicators indicate whether the strategic objectives in each perspective are achieved while leading indicators represent how the outcome should be achieved. The causal link between lagging and leading indicators not only occurs within the individual perspectives, but also across the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger Wagner, 2002) Organizations build strategy map from the top down, starting with the destination and then charting the routes that lead there. The vision and mission of the company provides a picture of the companys overall goal. The strategy of achieving the companys vision and mission, when translated into objectives and measures in each of the perspectives provide more meaning and clarity to employees. Measures describe how success in achieving an objective will be determined and thus give clarify to the objective. Typically, the objectives in the four perspectives of a strategy map lead to 20-30 measures. However, the number of measures is irrelevant when these measures are viewed as inter-dependent measures that are instrumental for achieving a single strategy. The multiple measures on the Balanced Scorecard are linked together in a cause and effect network that describes the business strategy. Targets are set for each measure. A target establishes the level of performance or rate of improvement required for a measure. Level of performance required should represent excellent performance. Companies identify initiatives, that is, short term programs and action plans that will help companies to achieve targets. Initiatives that will not have a major impact on one or more scorecard objectives should be de-emphasized (Kaplan and Norton, 2004). The Balanced Scorecard: In practice Having discussed the theory and principles underlying the Balanced Scorecard, we will look at the manner in which the measures of the Balanced Scorecard are developed and communicated in the corporate world by taking the case of Metro Bank and Asia Telecom. Metro Banks case adapted from Kaplan and Norton (1996) is used to illustrate revenue growth strategy whilst Asia Telecom is used to illustrate both revenue growth and productivity strategy. Metro Bank case Metro Bank, a retail banking division of a major bank was facing problem of excessive reliance on a single product. The revenue growth strategy is undertaken to resolve this problem, that is, to reduce earning volatility by broadening sources of revenue with additional products for current customers. In the process of developing the Balanced Scorecard, the strategy is translated into objectives and measures in the four perspectives. The financial objective to support revenue growth strategy was to broaden the mix of revenue. The financial measure is the percentage increase in year to year revenue (lag indicator) and revenue mix (lead indicator). The existing customers of the bank however do not view their banker as the logical source for a broader array of products such as mutual funds, credit cards and financial advice. The banks executive concluded that if the banks new strategy were to be successful, they must shift customers perception of the bank from that of a transactions processor of checks and deposits to a financial adviser. With this, the customer objective was to increase customer confidence in the banks financial advice and increase customer satisfaction. This is done by building long term relationship with targeted customers so that the bank can sell them multiple financial products and services. The measures are share of customer segment i.e. number of Metros customers in targeted segment (lag indicator) and depth of relationship (lead indicator). Internal activities that need to be mastered if the strategy were to succeed were identified as 1) understand customers, 2) develop new products and services and 3) cross-sell multiple products and services. Each business process would have to be redesigned to reflect the demands of the new strategy. For example, the selling process had traditionally been dependent on institutional advertising of the banks services. The bank did not have a selling culture. The bank personnel were reactive. A major reengineering program was launched to redefine the sales process into one which is relationship based. Measures introduced were cross-sell ratio (lag indicators) which measured selling effectiveness and hours spent with customers (lead indicators) to send signal to salespersons of the new culture required by the strategy In order to improve employee effectiveness in implementing the revenue growth strategy, the learning and growth component of the scorecard identified the need for 1) salespersons to acquire a broader set of skills (to become a financial counselor with broad knowledge of the product line), 2) improved access to information (integrated customer file), and 3) realignment of the incentive systems to encourage the new behavior. The lag indicators included a productivity measure, average sales per salesperson, as well as the attitudes of the work force as measured by an employee satisfaction survey. The lead indicators focused on the major changes that had to be orchestrated in the work force. These indicators are 1) the upgrading of the skill base and qualified people i.e. strategic job coverage ratio, 2) access to information technology tools and data i.e. strategic availability ratio, and 3) the realignment of individual goals and incentives to reflect the new priorities i.e. personal g oal alignment. Asia Telecom Asia Telecom, a telecommunication provider strives to grow business profitability and improve operating efficiency in a highly competitive environment. The company embarked on the following strategy: Growth strategy: expand new business while defending the traditional fixed line business Productivity strategy: improve efficiency by managing new capital investment and increase asset utilization In the Balanced Scorecard development process, the strategy is translated into objectives and measures in the four perspectives. Prepared and motivated work force Productivity strategy Growth strategy Defend traditional business Expand Regionally Grow New Business Manage Capital Expenditure Increase Asset Utilization Improve cost efficiency Improve returns Delight the customer Exceptional value services One stop solution Enduring relationship Synergy with Partners Ensure win-win partnership Innovation Process Develop alternative channels Develop product services offerings/bundles Operations Process Focus on operational efficiency Optimize deployment of shared services Improve Strategic Skills Competencies Create conducive organization climate Access to strategic information Customer Perspective Internal Perspective Financial Perspective Learning Perspective Figure 1 The Asia Telecom Strategy Map Growth strategy is pursued by: 1) defend traditional business, 2) expand regionally and 3) grow new business. Productivity is increased by: 1) manage capital expenditure, 2) optimize asset utilization and 3) improve cost efficiency. The company intends to grow new business and expand regionally (acquisition of other business) while defending its traditional fixed line business. Asset utilization and capital expenditure management is important as telecommunication assets are costly, require high investment and can quickly become obsolete with the advent of new technologies. Operating costs efficiency is targeted to reduce costs in running the business. Financial measures are earning per share, return on investment, revenue growth, operating costs per staff and EBITDA (earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization) (lag indicators) and strategic business support (lead indicator). Asia Telecom offers a variety of products and services to customers and builds enduring relationship with its customers. The customers are valued as always right. The company aspires to improve service quality in its outlets to retain and satisfy its customers. A Mesra Pelanggan Project was launched to strengthen necessary capabilities and capacities, strengthen and build on customer relation basics and ultimately, delight the customers. The customer measures identified are 1) one stop solution, 2) enduring relationship, 3) exceptional value services, and 4) ensure win-win partnerships. The measures are service level agreement compliance, customer and partner satisfaction index and customer retention and acquisition (lag indicators) and service level agreement and satisfaction survey (lead indicator). In order to achieve the above objectives, internal business processes identified are 1) create product and services offerings/bundles, 2) develop alternative channels, 3) focus on operational efficiency and 4) optimize deployment of shared services. Business processes needs to be redefined and changed to reflect the needs of the new strategy. For example, product development process has been designated to a small group of product development personnel. The rest of the marketers are not involved in product development even though they have direct contact and interaction with customers. A change in mindset was instigated to encourage every personnel to spend more time talking with customers to learn about their emerging needs and to think of innovative solutions to these needs. The measures include new product revenue, new channel ratio, expense ratio and cost savings (lag indicators) and product and channel development cycle and cost control (lead indicators). These measures clarify w hat needs to be done in order to achieve the objectives identified. The work force must be motivated and prepared to produce the level of effectiveness required to support the objectives in the three other perspectives. In order to foster long term growth and improvement, there is need to 1) improve strategic skills and competencies, 2) create conducive organization climate and 3) provide access to strategic information. Positive work culture including integrity, sense of urgency, teamwork and group interest was instilled to improve quality of the work force. Employee innovativeness is encouraged to create employees that are capable of applying knowledge to produce new products and services. The outcome measures are competency index, employee satisfaction index and climate survey index. The lead indicators which are organized to create change in the work place are staff development vs. plan, employee survey, organization climate survey and strategic systems availability vs. plan. Figure 2 Asia Telecoms Balanced Scorecard Strategic Objectives Measures Outcome Measures (Lag) Performance Drivers (Lead) Financial Defend traditional business Expand regionally Grow new business Manage capital expenditure Optimize asset utilization Improve cost efficiency Earning per share, EBITDA Return on investment Revenue growth Operating costs per staff Strategic business support Customer One stop solution Enduring relationship Exceptional value services Ensure win-win partnerships Customer satisfaction index Customer retention acquisition Partner satisfaction index Service level agreement compliance Customer satisfaction survey Customer satisfaction survey Partner satisfaction survey Service level agreement Internal Create product and services offerings/bundles Develop alternative channels Focus on operational efficiency Optimize deployment of shared services New product revenue, % of contribution to profit New channel ratio Expense ratio Cost savings Product development cycle Channel development cycle Cost control Learning Improve strategic skills and competencies Create conducive organization climate Access to strategic information Competency index Employee satisfaction index Climate survey index Staff development vs. plan Employee survey Organization climate survey Strategic systems availability vs. plan Figure 2 summarizes the objectives and measures for Asia Telecoms Balanced Scorecard. The scorecard and strategy map (Figure 1) describes a system of cause and effect relationships, incorporating a mix of leading and lagging indicators, all of which eventually point to improving future financial performance. Based on the above cases, it can be seen that the Balanced Scorecard framework translates and communicate strategy to the whole organization. In the case of Asia Telecom, employees understand what needs to be done in order to achieve the companys strategy to increase productivity. The measures in place such as competency index send signals to employees of what is required and focuses change efforts. There is shared understanding of the companys vision. From the cause and effect relationship inherent in the scorecard model, employees are able to see how they contribute to the companys success. Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Framework for Action Companies also use the Balanced Scorecard as the framework around which the management processes and programs are built. By identifying the most important objectives on which an organization should focus its attention and resources, the scorecard provides a framework for a strategic management system that organizes issues, information, and a variety of vital management processes. These processes are: Clarify and translate vision and strategy Communicate and link strategic objectives and measures Plan, set targets and align strategic initiatives Enhance strategic feedback and learning (Kaplan and Norton, 1996) By using the case of Asia Telecom, the manner in which the strategic framework is put into action is discussed next. Clarify and translate vision and strategy The Balanced Scorecard process starts with the senior management team working together to translate the business units strategy into specific strategic objectives. When translating the strategic into objectives in the four perspectives discussed above, the management must ensure that there is consensus on what objectives should be prioritized and what measures, targets and initiatives should be used. Consensus is important to ensure that everyone in the company is pursuing the same agenda. In Asia Telecom, sales and marketing has traditionally been regarded as important as they bring in revenue. However, as business becomes more competitive, the traditional fixed line business comes under attack, eating up the companys bottom line. There is increasing need for innovation to create new products and services to retain and win customers. New business needs to be developed and nurtured. In developing the scorecard, this strategy is agreed upon and translated into objectives in the four p erspectives. The development of the scorecard enables the management to agree, prioritize and be accountable for the objectives of the business. Communicate and link strategic objectives and measures The Balanced Scorecards strategic objectives and measures are communicated via company newsletters, bulletin boards, video conferencing and groupware to all levels of organizational constituents. The communication serves to signal to all employees the critical objectives that must be accomplished if the companys strategy is to succeed. The communication process enables the alignment of goals throughout the organization. Once employees understand the high level objectives and measures, they can establish local objectives that support the companys objectives. In Asia Telecom, the Balanced Scorecard is cascaded down to all levels and more than 180 Balanced Scorecards were developed at various levels of the company. The Balanced Scorecards reflect each organizational units objectives in achieving the overall objectives. These scorecards can be accessed online using a Balanced Scorecard system developed in house by the company. Plan, set targets and align strategic initiatives Managers should establish the following to use the scorecard in an integrated long range strategic planning and operational budgeting process: Set long term, quantifiable and stretch targets for the scorecard measures. Identify initiatives (investments and action programs) and resources for these initiatives which will enable the achievement of targets. These initiatives are intended to close the gap between targets set for strategic measures and current performance on those measures. Link to annual resource allocation and budgets i.e. formulate specific short term targets for the scorecard measures. This will allow managers to determine whether their strategy is valid and enable progress monitored. In Asia Telecom, the customer satisfaction index is targeted at more than 90% in 2006. The initiative to achieve the target is via the Mesra Pelanggan Project and customer relationship management. Resource allocation required to achieve the target is included as part of the business plan. Any deviation from the initial target can be picked up during the business plan review. This is also available in the Balanced Scorecard system which links strategy, business plan and performance. It also makes all strategic initiatives and resources congruence to Asia Telecoms Strategy. Enhance strategic feedback and learning The Balance Scorecard enables managers to monitor and adjust the implementation of their strategy, and if necessary, make fundamental changes in the strategy itself. The learning process is of two types: Single loop learning process: feedback about whether the planned strategy is being executed according to plan Double loop learning process: feedback about whether the planned strategy remains a viable and successful strategy. This learning process will prompt managers to question their underlying assumptions and reflect on whether the strategy under which they are operating remains valid in consideration of the current evidence, observations, and experience. The strategic feedback and learning process feeds into the next vision and strategy process where objectives in the various perspectives are reviewed, updated, and replaced in accordance with the most current view of the strategic outcomes and required performance drivers for the upcoming periods. Suppose that the data reveal that the organizations employees and managers have delivered on the performance drivers employees skills and competencies has been improved, tools and technology are available, new products and services have been developed and introduced on schedule. Now, th

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Case For And Against Global Governance Politics Essay

The Case For And Against Global Governance Politics Essay The wish to rule the world has always been a part of the human experience throughout recorded history. Broadly speaking, global governance is an international and political system of ruling at all levels or human activity. In other words, this type of governance can be associated with multilevel governance in the sense that governance does not only take place at the national and the international echelon but also at the local, regional as well as subnational levels. Globalisation is a term that has been spoken about worldwide since 1990 and it has given a rise to intense arguments about the supply of losses and gains resulting from it. From a political point of view, many authors have also tried to define the subject matter which will be discussed throughout this essay. This essay examines not only the pessimistic and optimistic sides of global governance but will also explain the concept, how it works together or in cooperation with the United Nations. Meaning, this piece of work wi ll also explain a bit about the UNs contribution towards global governance by giving supportive examples in order to back up the argument. It will also analyse what authors think about global governance and how they define it. It will then suggest a model for enhancing global governance within the conclusion. As explained within the introduction, global governance could also be considered as a political interaction of transnational actors aimed at solving issues that have an effect on more than one state or area in case there is no authority of imposing compliance. Global governance makes rules intended for the worldwide scale. However, the world governance model only takes as fact the emergence and intensification of interdependence conditions between states and not a monopoly of the legal practice of force. To be more specific, it is a model of international relations that does not presume the alteration of the material constitutions of the international relations from anarchy to hierarchy. Nevertheless, it represents a noticeable change of the social structures in which international relations are taking place. Fundamentally, this transformation is characterized by the rising significance of norms and set of laws which are globally agreed (Volker R and Bernhard z 2006). Governance in t his particular case designates official political establishments that seek to organize and control co-dependent social relations and that also have the capacity to implement decisions. In fact, many authors have defined the concerned topic according to their ideology. Global governance is basically the sum effort of managing global affair. The commission of Global Governance which was established in 1995 provided the following definition: Global governance is the sum of many ways individuals and institutions public and private manage their common affairs. It is a progressing process through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and co-operate actions may be taken. It includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce conformity, as well as informal arrangements that people and institutions either have agreed to or perceive to be in their interest. At the global level, governance has been viewed primarily as intergovernmental relationships, but must now be understood as also involving non-governmental organisations (NGOS), citizens movements, multinational corporations and the global capital market. Global government aims at activities that cross borders and are normally outside the control of individual governments. Commerce and world trade are standard case in points. International crime, drug smuggling, cross-border environmental problems, the internet, tourism, migration of people and the spread of diseases are amongst the cases that covers global governance. The system available for the management of a particular set of issues internationally is referred to as international regimes. If global governance is the sum of ways that individuals and institutions manage their common affairs across the world, then international regimes are the tool kits for this activity. (Krasner, 1983:2). Global governance includes peoples participation and empowerment with respect to public policies, choices and offices. Global governance can encompass the workings of the world economic market which can be undertaken on the basis of implicit understanding, private agreements and with little input from international organisations. The internet functions world-wide without recourse to any controlling international organisations and indeed often beyond governmental control. It also includes the institutions in which these principles and values find on-going expression. It cannot be argued that Global governance can be good, bad or indifferent refers to active collective arrangements to solve problems. Adjusting our definition, global governance is the sum of laws, norms, policies and institutions that define, constitute and mediate relations among citizens, society, markets and the state within the international field (reference). Conventionally, governance has been linked with leading, governing, or with political power, institutions, and, eventually, control and management of organisations. In the sense, governance signifies formal political establishments that aim to coordinate and control interdependent social relations and possess the capacity to enforce decisions. In rec ent years, however, authors such as James Roseneau have used governance refering to the regulation of interdependent relations in the nonexistence of overarching political authority; such as in the international system. Meaning, even in the absence of an overarching central authority, existing collective arrangements bring more predictability, stability and order to transboundary problems than we might expect. These may be perceptible but quite informal(e.g. practices or guidelines).But they may also be far more formal, taking the shape of rules (laws, norms, codes of behaviour) as well as constituted institutions and practices intended to manage collective affairs by a mixture of actors. Through such methods and agreements, collective interests are articulated, rights and obligations are established and differences are mediated (Thomas G Weiss and R Thakur,2001). International organisations are likely to remain the fundamental pillar of global governance since as being a model of g lobal governance they might not only portray more satisfactorily the reality of todays international relations but also the reality of international relations in the predictable future.(Volker et all, 2006). The statements above have showed how to some extent, a world can be organised without a central overarching authority (global governance). As mentioned above, global governance could have both positive and negative outcomes which will be discussed within the following paragraphs. On one hand, I believe that there is no government for the world. Yet on any given day, mail is distributed across frontiers, people travel from one country to another via variety of transportation means; goods and services are shipped across lands, sea ,air and a whole range of other cross-border activities takes place in rational expectation of safety and security for the people, firms and governments concerned. Most observers believe that there is no foundation for an over-optimistic evaluation of th e impact of globalisation. As a matter of fact, we notice that there is an ever-widening gap between rich and poor people in developing and industrialises countries alike instead of a stable increase and a fair distribution of wealth (UNDP 1999). Additionally, disruptions and threats are rare; indeed in many instances less frequent in the international domain than in many sovereign countries that should have effective and functioning governments. That is to say, international transactions are typically if not to say naturally characterized by order, stability and predictability. This simply means that with or without global governance, they are generally and normally characterised by steadiness and preventability. This immediately raises a puzzle and shows that to some extent the world could be governed even in the absence of a world or global government to produce codes of conduct, norms and regulatory surveillance as well as compliance instruments. In other words, there could be g overnance without a central government. Some allocated values are quasi-authoritative for the world and are accepted as such without a government to rule the world. To back up what has been explained above, I will give an example of what has happened up till now in the world. Asia also underwent a major financial crisis in 1997-1998. Nowadays, the impressive subprime housing loans, banking and financial crisis that began in the US in September-October 2008 is likely continue for several years. That simply means it is also the case that normal periods of calm, stability, order and predictability are interspersed with periodic bouts of market volatility, disorder and crisis. Government may be imperfect, but markets too are defective. Both the Asian crisis and the US market collapse in 2008 express the necessity for transparent, sufficient, effective regulatory, surveillance instruments and institutions. To be more specific, these are crisis of governance in terms of playing proper ro le of governments and market institutions as well as the appropriate balance in the relationships between them. Furthermore, these are also crisis of domestic governance. The causes of the crisis lie in the inadequate domestic governance and the solution entails responses from both domestic governments and the markets. (Weiss and Thomas George, 2010).Examples above show how the role of global governance institutions is restricted to containing the contagion. For this case, I believe that global governance institutions to some extent are limited in its actions and sometimes do not act beyond its capacity. To be more assertive, Global governance can play a facilitative and constraining role, but it rarely plays a determinant and predominant one. The authority and ability for the latter is vested almost exclusively in domestic public authorities. In fact, the expectations are greater for global governance on the peace and security side, yet here too they may be false or overstated. As financial crisis periodically occurs, armed conflict occasionally breaks out even in the midst of general peace and order. As stated by Weiss and Thomas, 2010, not all emergencies and crisis are human-made. The worldwide response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami which killed about 280,000 people provides us with global governance in microcosm, an illustration of how an enormous transborder problem is addressed in a decentralised world. Although it is trite to remark that there is no world government to take charge of international responses, it is less commonly understood that there was such a remarkable assistance which was effectively provided to tsunami victims without a central authority. Within the following paragraph, I will give another example showing how global governance institutions could be unhelpful sometimes. In December 2004, there was an earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. This took place in the Island of Sumatra. Consequently, the ear thquake and the resulting Tsunami spread mind-boggling destruction across the Indian Ocean. What is more, 12 countries were affected some as far away as the Horn of Africa. The globalizing effect of innovations in transportation and communication were in evidence. The revolution in information technology made global communications instantaneous and also made it possible to mobilize humanitarian assistance for rescue, relief, and the reconstruction in real time. This began to appear on international television news programs and on internet. It has also allowed the scope of the tragedy to become clear. A week after the disaster, experts estimated that as many people would die of disease as were killed by the waved themselves. In fact, help was so valuable that number was close to zero. As a matter of fact, even though the UN can physically deploy humanitarian assistance to help people affected by such emergencies anywhere in the world, it is not puzzling to affirm that millions of liv es were saved and rebuilding was started without a central authority (global governance). Moreover, despite the fact that IOs help states to cooperate in the pursuit of shared goals and manage competition and rivalry in order to avoid conflict and violence, countless threats whether natural or unnatural face the human species. For example genocide, weapons of mass destruction, climates change, and financial instabilities. Essentially, the evolution of intergovernmental institutions to facilitate robust international responses lags well behind the emergence of collective problems with transborder, especially global dimensions. This could also be stated as one of the problà ©matiques (negative side) of global governance in our time. Similarly, another pessimistic side of global governance is in terms of security. This consists of the disconnect between the distribution of authority within existing intergovernmental institutions and the distribution of military power internationally. According to Rodern Wilkinson: Economic governance is the most advanced and comprehensive dimension of emerging global governance. Yet as in the security sector, there is a growing gap between distribution of authority within existing international institutions and the international distribution of economic power. Regardless of the fact that Global Governance has an unfinished journey with the UN, it is important to acknowledge that it also has limits in terms of attaining their governance goals and thus the reduction of their legitimacy, mainly originates from four governance gaps which are jurisdictional, operational, incentive and participatory. As a result these gaps considerably impair the capacity of international governance systems such as global governance in this case so as not to deal efficiently with urgent problems. (Volker Rittberg, 2001). This also impedes some actors opportunities to participate in the public policy-making. In other words, the attainment of governance goals within the global governance as a model of international governance system has gradually become more complex. This is particularly true for trans- sovereign problems. This lack of effectiveness has been referred to as the governance systems reduced output legitimacy(Zurn 2002, 184,Scharpf 1998a). According to Volker Rittberg, global governance has to be regarded rather as a patchwork of heterogeneous elements deriving from governance under the hegemonic umbrella (e.g. in the security communities) as well as governance without world governance appears to be the most desirable and realistic of realizable governance models. The extent to which the United Nations can help promote international world peace and security is a matter of debate. Evidence indicates that the world organisation still faces many great challenges. Most importantly, insecurity is growing especially in Non-western or developing countries. For the time being, the UN possesses only a limited institutional and logistical capacity to undertake major peace operations around the world. Accordingly, global governance is not a single world order, not a top down, hierarchical structure of authority. It is the collection of governance, related activities, rules and mechanisms, formal and informal existing at a variety of levels in the world today. For purposes of global government, one major limitation of public international law is that it applies only to states except for war crimes and crimes against humanity. At present, except within the EU, multilateral agreements cannot be used directly to bind individuals, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations, paramilitary forces, terrorists or international criminals. However, they can establish norms that states are expected to observe and where possible enforce against these non-state actors. Another issue in the eyes of many is the deficiency of international enforcement mechanisms and the role of self-interest in shaping states decisions about whether or not to accept treaties and other forms of international rules. International law has left states to use self-help means to secure fulfilment. In reality, The UN charter and the E.U treaties for example, provide enforcement mechanisms yet the threat of sanctions is not a key motivator for compliance with international rules (M Karns and K Mingst, 2004). The complexity of global governance is a function not only of many pieces, but also of many actors that are frequently linked in transnational and trans-governmental networks. Such networks have become increasingly dense since the 1970.Amongst them there are the states, IGOs, NGOs, experts, multinational corporations (MNCS) and global policy networksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ However, it is important to acknowledge the fact that the theory and practice of global governance seeks to provide international government-like services in the absence of a world government and helping to build effective regional organisations and security communities, the UN has a better chance of achieving its goals for global governance. The positive side of global governance will now be discussed within the following paragraphs. On the other hand, Global governance is needed in order to stimulate improvement, maintain social stability and to decrease inequality. Meaning, a stronger international cooperation is important so as to make this work in tandem (effectively) with open market abroad. I believe that since more and more problems are global, solutions should also be global to make more sense. That is to say effective cooperation among governments, big business and NGOs is necessary. It is evident that over the past years climate change has been the lightning-road issue for global governance. Therefore it makes sense for global common problems to require a global cooperative solution. The United Nations once dealt only with governments. By now we know that peace and prosperity cannot be achieved without partnerships involving governments, international organisations, the business community and civil society ( In fact, we depend on each other in todays world. This simply means a nation cannot surv ive efficiently on its own and will surely need a hand from the outside world. It can be seen that international organisations (IGOS) and INGOS play important roles and undertake particular functions in the world market-place. Therefore it is difficult to imagine the contemporary world without them since they assist the process of the functioning of the international political systems such as global governance. The absence of inactivity of global governance could result in the fact that sovereign states would have to contact one another by the transnational means of diplomacy, at most conference diplomacy. National groupings and individuals might well have contact with those having common interests in other parts of the world but this relationship would not be formalized into a continuous structure with members from several states. Forums for discussion and exchange would be less frequent and would be one-off occasions with no certainty of any continuity. Governments and groupings t rying to further their own ends internationally would have fewer instruments. The existence of Global governance, however strong or weak and in whatever form, also allows for action by global civil society. Civil society in the domestic context refers to the social action not organized by governments and its agents but non-governmental movements, associations and organizations. (Clive A, 2001). The U.N system plays a central role in global governance in terms of implementing or adjusting proposals. It seems that the global-governance model is most compatible with our finding that international organisations are able to encourage and stabilize international cooperation among sovereign states To gain a foothold in the future, global governance will have to overcome the gaps mentioned above, which we have not explained in detail throughout this essay. However, there is no general consensus about how these gaps can and should be narrowed or even closed although they curtail the effectiveness and legitimacy of 20th century international governance systems. In order to fulfil effectively the tasks of governance, it is essential to ensure a well-balanced relationship within the triad of actors and by making it possible for these actors to participate in governance processes adequately and equitably.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

With a topic as frequently discussed as racial discrimination within our criminal justice system, there are many opinions and theories as to why our correctional facilities are populated with the type of inmates that are housed within. Fortunately, it has not been proven true that our criminal justice system is run in a racially discriminating manner, rather debated and analyzed in many lights. Discrimination is prohibited, as a matter of constitutional and statutory law, in a wide range of settings (Banks, Eberhardt & Ross, 2006). Who is it that teaches us who to be afraid of within society? Who are the â€Å"bad guys† that we should avoid? How many times do our parents tell us during our childhood to avoid certain people and places? Examples being a stranger with a van, neighborhoods to avoid late at night and other precautions that shape the way we think and believe as we grow of the dangers within our society. These same precautions that we are accustomed to during our ch ildhood become embedded into our minds throughout adolescence and leading into adulthood. How do our parents determine who the â€Å"bad guys† are that we ought to avoid? If our own parents are raising us to distinguish between individuals, are they possibly raising us in a racially discriminating way? If that were the case, then who are we to criticize our criminal justice system for possibly doing the same? Criminologists generally agree that young people are more likely to commit crime than old people, men more than women, city dwellers more than country folk, the poor more than the rich, and the minorities more than whites (Cole, 1999). Logically, there is no one criteria of who can be immediately classified as the â€Å"type† of person that would commit crimes and the... ...e to look for and apprehend individuals. As Cole (1999) explained, police departments must be willing to disclose to the public the demographics of their enforcement tactics. If society is not aware of why the police is going after the individuals they are, society is left to assume their own reasons which more often than not leads to the thought of racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is not a just way to run a criminal justice system nor any other aspect of our free communities. As a country, the United States has come a long way and as a nation has given us the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Until there is concrete proof that the criminal justice system is being run on a racial basis, it would behoove us to trust those in charge and continue following the laws in place to make the best possible example for others within our society.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Is Mass Media Harming our Society? Essay -- Media Dangers, Internet, TV

In today's society, mass media, including television, radio, and newspaper or magazines have become very dependable sources to so many people. People spend many hours everyday reading about celebrities in the tabloids, watching biased news channels, or participating in violent video games. Even though most media is highly entertaining, people have become so reliant on media that we seem to be harming our community in a very negative fashion. Mass media works as a socializing factor and affects the way we view the world and how we interact with other people. However, the messages that are seen in most of the magazines these days are negative images, especially for the youth of the world. For example, on the front page of popular magazines such as Teen and Cosmopolitan, are celebrities whom are extremely thin and suffer from eating disorders or celebrities who are abusing drugs and alcohol and getting away with it. Both of these situations are extremely popular topics, especially in high school and college, and there is no reason we should be advertising it on the front page of tablo...

Honesty :: essays research papers

It was my aunt who taught me the meaning of honesty. Not because she actually was honest, but because she lied all the time. I think she felt that the easiest way out of any given situation was generally the best way out. For her, that meant telling a lie that sounded believable. As a young child I thought it was cool to lie and get out of things so easily and being around my aunt was the main problem. Naturally, when ever I would come to her with a problem, concern, or a question wondering what I should do, she would always tell me to make up a good lie and run with it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Aunt Ruby, I told April that I would go to the movies with her, but I would rather go to Jessica’s house and go to the mall with her.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Tell April you’re sick,† she would say. And most often I would. But I didn’t seem blessed with her lack of principles. On many occasions April would find out that I really went to Jessica’s house and to the mall without her. These occasions taught me that it is more painful to be caught in a lie than to tell the truth in the first place. I wondered how it was possible that my aunt had never learned that lesson that I had just learned so painfully and so easily.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I started thinking of all the lies that I’d heard her tell. I remember the time she told her friend that her favorite shopping mall had closed, just so she wouldn’t have to see her there anymore and have her approach her and talk for five minutes. The time she told my Uncle that she loved the new purse he had gotten her for her birthday. The one that really takes the cake is when she told her friend Patty that the car was down and that is why she hasn’t been to see her in a couple of weeks. The thing that I don’t understand is why you have to lie to the people you love if you don’t like or want to do something. What bothered me after awhile was how she incorporated me into her lies. Like the time she called the school and told them I wouldn’t be there today because I had a dentist appointment, when in fact, she wanted me to baby sit my little cousin so she could go get her hair done.