Thursday, November 28, 2019

Battle of Flamborough Head in the American Revolution

Battle of Flamborough Head in the American Revolution The Battle of Flamborough Head was fought September 23, 1779, between Bonhomme Richard and HMS Serapis and was part of the American Revolution (1775-1783). Sailing from France in August 1779 with a small squadron, noted American naval commander Commodore John Paul Jones sought to circle the British Isles with the goal of wreaking havoc on British merchant shipping. In late September, Jones ships encountered a British convoy in the vicinity of Flamborough Head off the east coast of England. Attacking, the Americans succeeded in capturing two British warships, the frigate HMS Serapis (44 guns) and the sloop-of-war HMS Countess of Scarborough (22), after a protracted and bitter fight. Though the battle ultimately cost Jones his flagship, Bonhomme Richard (42), the victory cemented his place as one of the preeminent American naval commanders of the war and greatly embarrassed the Royal Navy. John Paul Jones A native of Scotland, John Paul Jones served a merchant captain in the years before the American Revolution. Accepting a commission in the Continental Navy in 1775, he was appointed as first lieutenant aboard USS Alfred (30).  Serving in this role during the expedition to New Providence (Nassau) in March 1776, he later assumed command of the sloop USS Providence (12). Proving an able commerce raider, Jones received command of the new sloop-of-war USS Ranger (18) in 1777.  Directed to sail for European waters, he had orders to assist the American cause in any way possible. Arriving in France, Jones elected to raid British waters in 1778 and embarked on campaign that saw the capture of several merchant vessels, an attack on the port of Whitehaven, and the capture of the sloop-of-war HMS Drake (14). Returning to France, Jones was celebrated as as hero for his capture of the British warship. Promised a new, larger ship, Jones soon encountered problems with the American commissioners as well as the French admiralty. A New Ship On February 4, 1779, he received a converted East Indiaman named Duc de Duras from the French government.  Though less than ideal, Jones commenced adapting the vessel into a 42-gun warship which he dubbed Bonhomme Richard in honor of American Minister to France Benjamin Franklins Poor Richards Almanac. On August 14, 1779, Jones departed Lorient, France with a small squadron of American and French warships. Flying his commodores pennant from Bonhomme Richard, he intended to circle the British Isles in a clockwise fashion with the goal of attacking British commerce and diverting attention from French operations in the Channel. Commodore John Paul Jones. Hulton Archive / Stringer/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images A Troubled Cruise During the early days of the cruise, the squadron captured several merchantmen, but issues arose with Captain Pierre Landais, commander of Jones second largest ship, the 36-gun frigate Alliance. A Frenchman, Landais had traveled to America hoping to be a naval version of the Marquis de Lafayette. He was rewarded with a captains commission in the Continental Navy, but now resented serving under Jones. Following an argument on August 24, Landais announced he would no longer follow orders. As a result, Alliance frequently departed and returned to the squadron at its commanders whim. After an absence of two weeks, Landais rejoined Jones near Flamborough Head at dawn on September 23. The return of Alliance raised Jones strength to four ships as he also had the frigate Pallas (32) and the small brigantine Vengeance (12). Fleets Commanders Americans French Commodore John Paul JonesCaptain Pierre LandaisBonhomme Richard (42 guns), Alliance (36), Pallas (32), Vengeance (12) Royal Navy Captain Richard PearsonHMS Serapis (44), HMS Countess of Scarborough (22) The Squadrons Approach Around 3:00 PM, lookouts reported sighting a large group of ships to the north. Based on intelligence reports, Jones correctly believed this to be a large convoy of over 40 ships returning from the Baltic guarded by the frigate HMS Serapis (44) and the sloop-of-war HMS Countess of Scarborough (22). Piling on sail, Jones ships turned to chase.  Spotting the threat to the south, Captain Richard Pearson of Serapis, ordered the convoy to make for the safety of Scarborough and placed his vessel in a position to block the approaching Americans.  After  Countess of Scarborough had successfully guided the convoy some distance away, Pearson recalled his consort and maintained his position between the convoy and approaching enemy.  Ã‚   First Shots Due to light winds, Jones squadron did not near the enemy until after 6:00 PM.  Though Jones had ordered his ships to form a line of battle, Landais veered Alliance from the formation and pulled Countess of Scarborough away from Serapis.  Around 7:00 PM, Bonhomme Richard rounded Serapis port quarter and after an exchange of questions with Pearson, Jones opened fire with his starboard guns. This was followed by Landais attacking  Countess of Scarborough.  This engagement proved brief as the French captain quickly disengaged from the smaller ship.  This allowed  Countess of Scarboroughs commander, Captain Thomas Piercy, to move to Serapis aid.   A Bold Maneuver Alert to this danger, Captain Denis Cottineau of Pallas intercepted Piercy allowing  Bonhomme Richard to continue engaging Serapis. Alliance did not enter the fray and remained apart from the action. Aboard Bonhomme Richard, the situation quickly deteriorated when two of the ships heavy 18-pdr guns burst in the opening salvo. In addition to damaging the ship and killing many of the guns crew, this led to the other 18-pdrs being taken out of service for fear that they were unsafe. Using its greater maneuverability and heavier guns, Serapis raked and pounded Jones ship. With Bonhomme Richard becoming increasingly unresponsive to its helm, Jones realized his only hope was to board Serapis. Maneuvering closer to the British ship, he found his moment when Serapis jib-boom became entangled the rigging of Bonhomme Richards mizzen mast. As the two ships came together, the crew of Bonhomme Richard quickly bound the vessels together with grappling hooks. The Tide Turns They were further secured when Serapis spare anchor became caught on American ships stern. The ships continued firing into each other as both sides marines sniped at opposing crew and officers. An American attempt to board Serapis was repulsed, as was a British attempt to take Bonhomme Richard. After two hours of fighting, Alliance appeared on the scene. Believing the frigates arrival would turn the tide, Jones was shocked when Landais began indiscriminately firing into both ships. Aloft, Midshipman Nathaniel Fanning and his party in the main fighting top succeeded in eliminating their counterparts on Serapis. Moving along the two ships yardarms, Fanning and his men were able to cross over to Serapis. From their new position aboard the British ship, they were able to drive Serapis crew from their stations using hand grenades and musket fire. With his men falling back, Pearson was forced to finally surrender his ship to Jones. Across the water, Pallas succeeded in taking Countess of Scarborough after a prolonged fight. During the battle, Jones was famously reputed to have exclaimed I have not yet begun to fight! in response to Pearsons demand that he surrender his ship. Aftermath Impact Following the battle, Jones re-concentrated his squadron and began efforts to save the badly damaged Bonhomme Richard. By September 25, it was clear that the flagship could not be saved and Jones transferred to Serapis. After several days of repairs, the newly taken prize was able to get underway and Jones sailed for Texel Roads in the Netherlands. Evading the British, his squadron arrived on October 3. Landais was relieved of his command shortly thereafter. One of the greatest prizes taken by the Continental Navy, Serapis was soon transferred to the French for political reasons. The battle proved a major embarrassment for the Royal Navy and cemented Jones place in American naval history.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Dolley Madison

By this time Philadelphia had become the capital city. With her charm and her laughing blue eyes, fair skin, and black curls, the young widow attracted distinguished attention. Before long Dolley was reporting to her best friend that "the great little Madison has asked...to see me this evening." Although Representative James Madison of Virginia was 17 years her senior, and Episcopalian in background, they were married in September 1794. The marriage, though childless, was notably happy; "our hearts understand each other," she assured him. He could even be patient with Dolley's son, Payne, who mishandled his own affairsand, eventually, mismanaged Madison's estate. Discarding the somber Quaker dress after her second marriage, Dolley chose the finest of fashions. Margaret Bayard Smith, chronicler of early Washington social life, wrote: "She looked a Queen...It would be absolutely impossible for any one to behave with more perfect propriety than she did." Blessed with a desire to please and a willingness to be pleased, Dolley made her home the center of society when Madison began, in 1801, his eight years as Jefferson's Secretary of State. She assisted at the White House when the President asked her help in receiving ladies, and presided at the first inaugural ball in Washington when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. Dolley's social graces made her famous. Her political acumen, prized by her husband, is less renowned, though her gracious tact smoothed many a quarrel. Hostile statesmen, difficult envoys from Spain or Tunisia, warrior chiefs from the west, flustered youngstersshe always welcomed everyone. Forced to flee from the White House by a British army during the War of 1812, she returned to find the mansion in ruins. Undaunted by temporary quarters, she entertained as skillfully as ever. At their plantation Montpelier in Virginia, the Madisons lived in pleasant retirement until he died in 1836. She ret... Free Essays on Dolley Madison Free Essays on Dolley Madison By this time Philadelphia had become the capital city. With her charm and her laughing blue eyes, fair skin, and black curls, the young widow attracted distinguished attention. Before long Dolley was reporting to her best friend that "the great little Madison has asked...to see me this evening." Although Representative James Madison of Virginia was 17 years her senior, and Episcopalian in background, they were married in September 1794. The marriage, though childless, was notably happy; "our hearts understand each other," she assured him. He could even be patient with Dolley's son, Payne, who mishandled his own affairsand, eventually, mismanaged Madison's estate. Discarding the somber Quaker dress after her second marriage, Dolley chose the finest of fashions. Margaret Bayard Smith, chronicler of early Washington social life, wrote: "She looked a Queen...It would be absolutely impossible for any one to behave with more perfect propriety than she did." Blessed with a desire to please and a willingness to be pleased, Dolley made her home the center of society when Madison began, in 1801, his eight years as Jefferson's Secretary of State. She assisted at the White House when the President asked her help in receiving ladies, and presided at the first inaugural ball in Washington when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. Dolley's social graces made her famous. Her political acumen, prized by her husband, is less renowned, though her gracious tact smoothed many a quarrel. Hostile statesmen, difficult envoys from Spain or Tunisia, warrior chiefs from the west, flustered youngstersshe always welcomed everyone. Forced to flee from the White House by a British army during the War of 1812, she returned to find the mansion in ruins. Undaunted by temporary quarters, she entertained as skillfully as ever. At their plantation Montpelier in Virginia, the Madisons lived in pleasant retirement until he died in 1836. She ret...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Discussion for online Healthcare HRM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Discussion for online Healthcare HRM - Essay Example 2) Although these EQ tests are designed to test the personality traits of the incumbent with accuracy but there are always chances of error and misstatement, how do you deal with situations when an employee (who previously appeared a team player) turns out to be a difficult person to handle and holds the whole team back? Ans: In situations where an employee becomes difficult to deal with, the role of manager/ supervisor as a team lead is very important. It’s mainly dependent on the manager’s leadership style and also the personality of that particular employee which helps in deciding the way forward. But in case, where an employee turns out to be a lone player, managers/ supervisors conduct meetings with them and make them aware of their lacking and also the desired behavior. Secondly, we also have a mechanism of appraisals every second month, which also helps us in analyzing the overall behavior of the employee and views of team members about them. Peer evaluations highlight different attributes of the employees and incase of a need counseling sessions are conducted. Where an employee appears to create problem time and again, issuing, letter of displeasure, warning and show causes notices are the primary steps of severe nature that we take after frequent communication of displeasure by the supervisors and managers or department heads. In case, where we receive constant negative feedback, we put such personnel under probation restricting his ability to see patients or play a role in hospital operations. HR department and the department head looks into the subject matter and then decide if the employee can be retained or not. In case of termination, all the hospital policies and state regulations are followed during separation phase. Ans: We encourage and hold teamwork activities every week, these activities not only include outbreaks such

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Biology 9 Introduction to Environmental Biology Assignment

Biology 9 Introduction to Environmental Biology - Assignment Example Majority of farmers shunned the planting of clover and alfalfa crops which are the nutritional sources for bees. In addition to this, the use of herbicides to kill the weeds has resulted in the elimination of some weeds which bear flowers fed on by the bees. The concentration of neonics on the soil is dangerous as it is absorbed in the plant leaves and nectars. If the bees consume such nectars, they may get twitched and die eventually. The adoption of monoculture form of farming results in the elimination of plants such as almond that are important for the nutritional purposes of the bees. In addition, the emergence of agricultural food deserts have deprived bees of the living farms which were once inhabited by the bees. In order to save the bees from this situation of decreasing numbers, measures must be taken. We need to plant flowers in our lawns, gardens, pots because these flowering plants are the nutritional sites for bees. We should also diversify the farming activities by growing flowering hedge borders to prevent the growing number of agricultural food

Monday, November 18, 2019

LENDER LIABILITY Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

LENDER LIABILITY - Research Proposal Example Thus, it is vital to understand briefly regarding the concept of lender liability. Based on this aspect, the objective of the assignment is to summarize the works of various authors on the area of lender liability. About ten credible sources have been used in order to evaluate the quality of information and relevance on the research subject i.e. lender liability. The author used various secondary sources in order to evaluate lender liability under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Throughout the research, the author found that possible liability for lenders under CERCLA has lurked in every commercial loan transactions. Schott (1992) also found that due to reluctance of lenders towards foreclosure on mortgages deeds, the very purpose of CERCLA has been disenchanted. Schott (1992) has provided significant information on CERCLA, an Act, which enacted by Congress in order to regulate hazardous waste issues that stemmed from inappropriate, inattentive and irresponsible waste disposal activities. It is worth mentioning that Schott (1992) described various legal cases in order to assess the liability of lender of any property. The author observed that CERCLA has generated uncertainty for lenders with respect to their liability on waste reduction. Hence, the author pointed out the amendment of CERCLA as a way to improve law in the context of lender liability (Schott, 1992). The authors have evaluated Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA) for addressing the problem of loan services of the students. The article portrayed that the mortgage lenders are not complying with the process of SCRA while providing loans. Jensen & Leonhardt (2013) recognized the threat of increased loan debt, which highlighted the importance of lenders liability while providing loans to the students. Various secondary sources have been utilized in the article in order to address the challenges of mortgage loans and most

Friday, November 15, 2019

Factors Influencing Decisions to Undertake Financial Savings

Factors Influencing Decisions to Undertake Financial Savings Background Information The concept of saving does not provide itself to a concise definition leading to diverse definitions put forward by various researchers and economists in the economic literature. In the macroeconomics literature, it is considered as disposal income less consumption. Issahaku (2011) contended that saving goes beyond the proportion of disposable income that is not spent and that, spending on durable goods such as furniture, home accessories, appliances, computer, equipment and accessories, automobiles among others are ways of saving too. Andrea and Francisco (1998) also pointed out that investment in human capital such as medical products, apparatus and equipment, professional health services, health insurance and so forth are forms of saving. Nonetheless, the short coming of this view is that it conceals the clear distinction between expenditure and saving because several of the human capital components mentioned are more or less current expenditure items. This study seeks to consider saving as deposits in savings accounts which are done with banks, microfinance institutions, susu groups and other saving avenues (Schultz, 2005). This definition is in line with the definition put forth by the 2013/2014 Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 6) report as the setting aside of unspent income in a bank or a non-bank financial institution or in other forms of arrangement such as pension plans and some insurance products. The reason for this definition is that, it is through these saving window that financial institutions get to increase their credit standing and promote investment. Notwithstanding the lack of a common definition for the concept saving, it is an important macroeconomic variable to be studied under the purview of the economic arena of an individual as well as household level. Saving according classical economist like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and J.S. Mill is an important determinant of economic growth. For the individual or household, savings serves as a cushion against future unforeseen and uncertain circumstances of life while for a country’s economy as a whole, it leads to higher economic growth. For Rao (1980), saving constitute the basis for capital formation and capital formation constitute a major determinant of economic growth. Unlike developed economies where income is generated at a higher rate which encourages more saving thereby translating into more capital formation, developing economies like that of Ghana where income standard is almost uncertain coupled with low rate of financial inclusion of the various sectors of the eco nomy, it will be appropriate to pay more attention to the patterns and determinants of saving in the economy. On average East Asia saves more than 30 percent of gross national disposable income (GNDI) while Sub-Saharan Africa saves less than 15 percent. Regional differences have been rising: over the past three decades, saving rates have doubled in East Asia and stagnated in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean (Loayza et al., 2000). By a hike in aggregate saving, the social value of saving can exceed its private value in many developing countries. National savings of every economy can be broadly categorized into three saving type namely the household sector saving, private sector saving and finally the private sector saving. Public savings is the saving done by government such as state, local and federal government while private savings is the saving done by corporate business, institutions and organisations. Household sector savings is the saving done by families and individuals. Among these three savings type, the household sector savings is said to contribute a larger share to the total domestic savings of the economy (Rehman et al., 2011). Household sector savings is of utmost importance to the capital formation of every economy in that, the sector engages in substantial financial and non-financial investment and make possible both private and public investment by transferring accumulated savings. The Ghanaian household sector savings is made up of savings from urban households and that of rural households. Rural household sector is vital to the Ghanaian economy not only because of its potential in generating employment and income, rather, because of the limit set by this sector to the growth of some other sectors. Hence the growth of the aggregate economy is enormously dependent on the amount of savings emanating from this sector and how they are transferred into the hands of the enterprising investors. Ghana’s quest to mobilizing enough domestic resource through financial savings for capital formation which will eventually manifest itself in economic growth is believed to have begun when the country embarked on a comprehensive financial sector reform. Preceding this era, the country’s financial system was shallow , fragmented and almost at the verge of collapsing as a result of excessive state control and weak institutional framework leading to lower rate of financial savings. Many were the significant strides made in the economy during the reform which was mainly driven by liberalization policies such as interest rate deregulation and credit allocation, improved regulatory and supervisory frameworks especially in the financial sector. All these were geared towards enhancing banking intermediation that would improve financial savings mobilization. Despite these significant strides made, it is worth noting that most of the expansions in the financial sector were only c oncentrated in the urban areas at the expense of the rural societies (Osei-Assibey and Baah-Boateng, 2012). In recent times, the economy has witness a considerable increase in the number of both foreign and local financial institutions with the licenced Micro Finance Institutions leading with a total of 409 as at July 2014. Rural/Community Banks follows with 137 and finally, 58 Non-Bank Financial Institutions. (Data source: Bank of Ghana Website). Despite these significant increase in the number of financial institutions, the 2005/2006 and 2013/2014 Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5 and 6) reports have revealed that rural areas have higher percentages(78% and 78.5%) of households that do not owns a bank account or undertake financial savings as compared to that of urban households( 61% and 53.6%) respectively. This leaves us with mind boggling questions such as; what factors at all are responsible for these high percentages of rural households without savings account? What are the factors that influences the decision by rural households/individuals to hold bank account or undertake fin ancial savings? Do the operations of financial intuitions actually play a role in influencing the decision by rural households to hold bank accounts or/undertake financial savings? These questions and many other more are begging for answers. It is against this backdrop that the study seeks to investigate the factors that determines the decision by Ghanaian rural households to undertake financial savings or hold bank account. The hypothesis to be tested is whether operations of financial institutions actually play a significant role in the decision-to- save by rural households in Ghana. For the purpose of this study, it must be emphasized that â€Å"saving† refers to an individual having a bank account or is financially contributing to a loan/savings scheme in any of the financial institutions (i.e. banks, microfinance institutions, susu groups and other saving avenues). Problem Statement: It is now widely understood that saving has great potential impact. This insight is grounded in evidence that the poor do save in cash and in-kind—whether as a way to build assets, manage household cash flow, or effectively cope with risk. However, much of their savings remain informal and outside of the financial system (The SEEP Network 2013). Savings makes it possible for combating or meeting any emergency accrued by the individuals or the households or any corporate agencies. Saving is more often meant for meeting contingencies but sometimes it also acts as a form of investment. People are sometimes not inclined towards saving and the very reason for this, is the lack of awareness. Given the proliferation of financial intuitions (both locally and foreign owned) in recent times, one will expect that the percentage of households (particularly rural households) that undertake financial saving or/ holds bank account will be higher or at least match the increase in the number of financial institutions. Rather, the opposite is what is being observed. According to the 2005/2006 and 2013/2014 Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5 and 6) reports, rural areas have higher percentages(78% and 78.5%) of households that do not owns a bank account or undertake financial savings as against that of urban households(61% and 53.6%). This reflects a worrying phenomenon and leaves us with mind boggling question such as; what factors are accounting for these high percentages of rural households without savings account? What are the factors that influences the decision by rural households to hold bank account or/undertake financial savings? Do the operations of financial intuitions a ctually play a role in influencing the decision by rural households to hold bank account or/undertake financial savings? This is where the study becomes relevant in providing answers to the above mentioned mind boggling questions. Aggregate saving in any economy is dependent on a number of variables. For effective economic planning, the planners should have an idea regarding the capacity of saving of different groups of people and the method by which saving can be improved. To advocate for financial saving, there is a need to know about the saving motives of the individuals. An understanding of the saving preferences also helps in calculating the saving instruments which can efficiently arouse saving. Objectives of the Study: The study seeks to investigate the factors influencing the decision to undertake financial saving in rural Ghana. 1.3.1 Specific objectives: The above objective of the study will be achieved by; Analysing rural households’ attitude towards financial savings Examining whether the operations of financial institutions such as proximity to financial institution and the extent of flexibility in opening accounts significantly play a role in influencing the decision by rural households to save. Research Questions: Some of the questions that this study is seeking to answer are; What are the factors that influence the decision by rural households to undertake financial saving or/ hold bank accounts? Among the factors, which of them significantly influence the decision-to-save? Do the operations of financial institutions such proximity to financial institution and the extent of flexibility in opening accounts have significant bearing on the decision by rural dwellers to save? Significance/Justification of the Study: Recounting the saving potential of rural households, Meyer (1985) provided some reasons in support of the saving potentials of rural households and these are; 1) rural households save automatically between harvests, and/or sell a portion of their crops to pay off debts or to expand consumption; 2) rural households are heterogeneous rich and poor; rich households can always save over long and/or short periods while poor households can save only over short periods; and 3) more modern farming methods allow farmers to increase income and, therefore, savings. It appears the intervention measures (such as interest rate deregulation and the liberalization of financial sector) which has resulted in the upspring of a number of financial institutions and establishment of Rural/Community Banks put forward by Ghana to take the maximum advantage of the saving potentials of the rural households is not yielding its intended objectives as indicated by the 2005/2006 and 2013/2014 Ghana Living Standa rd Survey (5 and 6) reports. It is just appropriate that more time and resources are spent in studying and paying more attention to the savings decisions of rural households so as to take advantage of their saving potential if the objective of mobilizing enough financial resources for capital formation is to be achieved as a country. This is what the study stands to furnish us with. Also, many are the studies that have been found in the literature to exist on saving prior to (Mills and Ricardo 1884) through Harrod and Domar’s postulation about the essence of savings on economic growth to date. These studies rather focus on the determinants of the amount or rate of savings (Issahaku, 2011; Alma and Richard, 1988), macro level analysis (Gupta, 1970; Khan et al., 1992 😉 and description of savings behaviours using descriptive statistics (Komla, 2012) leaving out the quantitative analysis as gap in the literature. In the Ghanaian context, studies done on the determinants of saving of rural households using a micro level approach have mostly been skewed toward a specific rural area, on gender basis or a group of rural areas in Ghana such as Issahaku, (2011); Munin et al. (2013); Komla, (2012), Oduro et al. (2012 ) etc. This study takes a micro level approach and a nationwide analyses of the determinants of financial saving decision of rural households i n Ghana by employing quantitative and descriptive statistics. This study again gives an insight into the correlation between the decision to save by individuals in the rural areas and the operations of financial institutions. Financial institutions such as banks and other non-bank financial institutions also stand to benefit from the findings of this research as the findings will make them aware of opportunities to provide rural communities in the Ghana with accessible savings outlets which will enable these businesses to make profit. Finally, the current study will add to the existing literatures on financial savings and shall be a reference material for future study. Methodology: The study is focused on using secondary data from the Ghana Statistical Services on the Ghana Living Standard Survey 6(GLSS 6). This is because it captures well most of the variables of interest such as age, marital status, educational status of household heads family size, income dependency rate etc. The study takes a look at two analysis i.e. descriptive analysis and quantitative analysis. The quantitative analysis takes a look at the determinants of the decision to hold bank account/undertake financial savings by rural households (being binary in nature) with the other independent variables carried out by adopting the model employed by Munin et al (2013) with some modifications. Organization of Study: The study is organized into six chapters including the present one. The second chapter of the study covers an overview of financial saving in general, the importance of rural financial savings to an economy especially the economy of Ghana etc. The third chapter includes related theories of saving, views on the savings potentials of rural households and studies conducted on the saving behaviour both rural and urban households in Ghana and other countries . The fourth chapter presents the methods used in this study and the source of the data used. The fifth chapter includes the empirical estimation and discussion of the results generated. The sixth and last chapter includes the summary, recommendations and conclusion.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Plagiarism and The Red Badge of The Great Gatsby :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The Red Badge of Gatsby Last week, several journalists accused me of plagiarizing entire passages in my most recent novel, "The Red Badge of Gatsby." My accusers claim that in this book, my 27th in the last three years, I lifted sections from, among other sources, "A Tale of Two Cities," "War and Peace," "Pride and Prejudice," "Goldfinger," "Go, Dog. Go!" and the Lands' End holiday catalog. Friends have urged me to follow the example of another celebrated author who recently responded to similar allegations with a public apology. I must remind them, however, that copying what other writers have already done is exactly what got me into this mess. Let us take a look, then, at the passage my accusers allege I appropriated from Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter": " 'Hester Prynne,' said he, leaning over the balcony and looking down steadfastly into her eyes, 'thou hearest what this good man says, and seest the accountability under which I labor.' " Now, here is the so-called similar passage from my work: " 'Hester Prynne,' said he, leaning over the balcony, and looking down steadfastly into her eyes, 'it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, and what is up in that tree? A dog party! A dog party! A dog party in the tree!' " Those determined to find evil intent will, of course, focus on certain surface similarities between my passage and Hawthorne's. But readers who expect an author's work to be totally free of literary influences are, I believe, hopelessly naïve about the writing process, magining that an author creates a book by arduously filling up blank pages with words of his own. When I write a book, I never go anywhere near a blank page. Instead, I buy an already written book and start crossing out the words I have no intention of using.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

“Hills like White Elephants” Literary Analysis Essay

Trying to decide on a course of action when faced with an unexpected pregnancy, an American and a girl sit outside a train stop in the dusty part of Spain and drink on it. Indirectly approaching the sensitive subject of abortion, each member of the couplehood sets out to test the other in a verbal battle of the wills, engaging in a staccato like dialogue that offers some insight into the two main character’s personas. Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills like White Elephants† churns out a hefty sum of symbolism in a very short story ultimately leaving the imagination free reign to interpret. While they wait for a train to take them to Madrid, the dangers of persuing happiness unfolds (choices – how bad do you want something – how restrictions help you to understand yourself†¦if you put yourself out of your element – thats when you learn the most about yourself) . The timeline of the story is significant. Post WW1, opulence has landed in Amerci a and 20’s reign Roaring 20‘s, post WW1 Although setting is not talked about at length, what is written says many things about the underlying psyche of the two main characters, the American and a girl he calls Jig. Immediately, Hemmingway establishes an obvious conflict between the couple’s interests with the line â€Å"[o]n this side†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . This is further emphasized with â€Å"two lines of rails†, symbolizing their inability to connect with each other. A beaded curtain is then introduced, â€Å"to keep out the flies†, in reality, it is a grounder representing the girl’s shifting state of mind; while everything seems to change and turn and dance about around her, the curtain – not solid, but as fluid as her decision making skills – appears whenever she makes an important decision. Here, the curtain is a means of concealing their current dilemma. The pair are also described as being â€Å"outside the building†, where they are supposedly waiting for the train – a justification for their underlying purpose of waiting on a decision to be made. The Mediterranean sun finds them somewhere between Barcelona and Madrid, two major cities in Spain, where there is â€Å"no shade and no trees† on their side of the valley. This represents the crossroad they’ve reached in their relationship: they are stuck in limbo, coming from beauty and going into it, but must first make their decision of whether they go together or not. Lastly, throughout the story the girl looks out at the valley and the hills  in the distance, which are â€Å"white in the sun†, while she and the American are stuck in a â€Å"brown and dry† country, hardly conducive to life at all. The fertile valley and the hills represent the unborn baby – the potential for life. She mentions these hills and looks over to them many times, whereas the man refuses to acknowledge them, ignoring her when she initially brings them up. This is highlighted later when the American refers to ‘the operation’, or the potential abortion, as being â€Å"perfectly natural†. The presence of the beaded curtain shows that she does not agree with him. This fundamental disagreement of the concept of something as basic as nature foreshadows the couple’s impending separation. Furthermore, while she is perfectly aware she speaks of the white hills metaphorically, he takes her literally; they do not operate under the sa me mode of thought. Throughout the story, the American behaves according to the traditional idea of masculinity: rugged, knowledgeable, and always in control of himself and the given situation. Even when vexed or confused, he maintains a relaxed exterior and feigns indifference; such as when he tells the girl â€Å"if you don’t want to you don’t have to†. He avoids directly voicing his opinions, but when pressured collapses, oversimplifying the operation and relentlessly pushing her to have it. Thinking himself to be the more reasonable of the two, even identifying more with the other passengers â€Å"waiting reasonably† at the station, he inherently fails to provide the sympathy and understanding she needs during the crisis. Compared to the American, Jig is portrayed as being naà ¯ve, helpless, and indecisive. Her nickname, Jig, subtly indicates that the two characters merely dance around each other and the issue at hand without ever saying anything meaningful. In fact, the girl, unable to speak Spanish, can’t even order drinks from the bartender on her own – suggesting a strong dependence on him. Although her mind is constantly changing as it receives new information, she still is being pressured to make a decision while under the influence of his persistent attempts to control her. Jig is very much like the following comment made by Hemmingway on the 1920s, when the story was published: The age demanded that we dance And jammed us into iron pants. And in the end the age was handed The sort of shit that it demanded. (Audre Hanneman, Ernest Hemingway: A  Comprehensive Bibliography: Princeton University Press, 1967) By the end of the story, Jig seems to understand that her relationship with the American has effectively ended, despite her earlier professed desire to make him happy. She knows that even if she has the operation, their relationship won’t return to how it used to be. In many ways, the girl’s realization of this fact gives her power over the American, who never really understands why they still can’t have â€Å"the whole world† like they once did. Imagery and symbolism are common themes throughout this story. When Jig first tries the Anis Del Toro, she comments â€Å"[i]t tastes like liquorice†¦ everything tastes of liquorice†. Liquorice is a popular sweet, but in medicine it used to induce vomit. This sort of duality runs throughout the text. Here, Jig speaks about how everything possesses two natures: a positive and a negative. One not able to exist without the other. The curtain appears at the beginning of this scene, when the American orders the drinks. This might mean that she is becoming aware of a truth the man isn’t picking up on. At the end of the forty minutes, it is implied the train has come to pick them up. This too has a hidden meaning: once a train comes, it goes. Symbolically, the train represents Jig’s choice. Like the coming of the train, if she decides to abort the baby, there is no turning back. The train will keep on going just as her life will keep going; but will she ever be the same? The American tries his best to make his opinion known that he and Jig’s life will be easier and go back the way it was if she just goes through with this â€Å"simple operation.† It is also interesting to see how the man reacts to the indecision of his girl when â€Å"he picked up the two heavy bags and carried them around the station to the other tracks. He looked up the tracks but could not see the train. Coming back, he walked through the barroom, where people waiting for the train were drinking†¦ He went out through the bead curtain. She was sitting at the table and smiled at him.† As the man takes both of their bags over to the tracks, he is hoping that Jig will go through with the surgery. He is still uncertain as to whether she will in fact go through with the abortion, but lets his opinion be known by taking their luggage and setting it by the tracks to be loaded on the upcoming train. He looks up the tracks, waiting for the train that is supposed to come, but does not see it. Similarly, he anticipates that Jig will listen to his suggestion but is still uncertain whether she will go  through with it. When the American comes back into the barroom, he hopes that Jig has made a decision, preferably in favour of the abortion, but when he reaches her she has still not made up her mind. The drinks that the couple share are another instance of symbolism regarding Jigâ€⠄¢s decision about the abortion. Even though it may not have been known that alcohol consumption negatively affects the fetus in the womb, Jig’s consistent drinking gives way to the thinking that she may have thrown in the towel on the possibility of having the child. For instance, the Anis del Toro is a drink that is illegal in many countries because those who gorge themselves on the drink can, and probably will, die of alcohol poisoning. Knowing this, Jig’s drinking the Anis del Toro symbolizes her thinking of the child as a separate entity, perhaps already dead. Jig’s drinking several alcoholic beverages points toward her decision to abort the baby as her American boyfriend wants. There is also the recurring theme of the number â€Å"two.† For instance, the train stopped for â€Å"two† minutes, the couple drinks â€Å"dos† cervezas, they receive â€Å"two† glasses of beer, â€Å"two† felt pads and the American carries their â€Å"two† heavy bags to the other side of the train tracks. This overemphasis of the number two could inspire two different readings. The first could be that the relationship between the couple is the largest the relationship can span; they can’t include a third person into their twosome because three’s a crowd. The other way to read this is that perhaps â€Å"two† refers to Jig and her baby. Jig is still weighing the possibility of becoming a mother because she has not yet made a decision as to whether she will abort the baby or not. The overuse of two is definitely symbolic within the story. Even Hemingway’s title is symbolic which alludes to a deeper meaning in the term â€Å"white elephants† than just scratches the surface. A white elephant is a saying meaning â€Å"a gift not recognized by the receiver, whose value is outweighed by its cost†. The girl’s comment in the beginning of the story that the surrounding hills look like white elephants initially seems to be a casual, offhand remark, which in reality represents her desire to speak about the issue at hand. Later, her comment â€Å"the hills don’t really look like white elephants† is a subtle hint at her defiance: perhaps she won’t have the operation at all. The term â€Å"white elephants† originally was used in Indian cultures where a white elephant is â€Å"a possession unwanted by the owner but difficult to dispose of†. The term  originally came about in an apocryphal tale about the King of Siam who would â€Å"award a disagreeable courtier a white elephant, the upkeep of which would ruin the courtier† (Dictionary). Even though these elephants were beautifully ornate and were given as great gifts, the upkeep is atrocious. Basically the cost and care for the white elephant would supersede the actual joy of receiving it. In sum, a white elephant is an unwanted gift; much like Jig’s pregnancy seems, especially to the American: like an unwanted thing. Both the American and the girl drink alcohol throughout their conversation. They start by drinking large beers the moment they arrive at the station. Then, as soon as they begin talking about the hills that look like white elephants, the girl asks to order more drinks. Although they drink primarily to avoid thinking about the issue at hand, readers sense that deeper problems exist in their relationship, of which the operation is merely one. The girl implies this herself when she remarks that she and the American man never do anything together except try new drinks, as if constantly looking for new ways to avoid each other. By the end of their conversation, both drink alone- the girl at the table and the man at the bar- suggesting that the two are winding down their relationship and will soon go their separate ways.

Friday, November 8, 2019

14 Resume Strategies for Recent Graduates

14 Resume Strategies for Recent Graduates Writing a resume can be hard even for the most seasoned professional. Writing one to net you your first job out of college can be downright terrifying. Here are 14  tricks you can use to maximize your chances of getting the interview, and getting your career off to a great start. 1. Use a professional email addressIt may have been a great laugh to be longduckdong16@yahoo.com back in the day, but now that you’re entering the adult world, it is high time to consider something a bit more†¦ mature. It might even help to create an address dedicated solely to job searching and your professional life. When in doubt, lastname.firstname or firstinitial.lastname@gmail.com ought to do the trick.2. Link to LinkedInIf you don’t already have a LinkedIn profile, make one. It will be a necessary tool for you now and in the many work years to come. Once you’ve set yourself up nicely, follow the instructions on the site to make a customized link, i.e. www.linkedin.com/in/Yo urNameMBA and include it in your resume. This will be particularly useful if you’re submitting a pdf; the recruiter will only have to click on the link to find your profile.3. Don’t pad it with fluffBS might have worked in your sociology intro class, but a professional hiring manager is going to see right through buzzwords like â€Å"team player† and â€Å"ambitious self-starter.† Try to be a bit more unique in your word choice and show your experience rather than relying on keywords. If your job description is clearly showcasing your teamwork or leadership skills, then you don’t need to oversell the point.4. OptimizeThat said, keywords are an important and useful tool, particularly when your resume might be evaluated online before reaching a sentient human. Rather than just include the usual â€Å"hardworking† and â€Å"strong leader† terms you think you have to include, try using keywords included in the job listing itself. Thatâ₠¬â„¢s a sure fire way to catch a company’s eye. Give them what they’re looking for!5. Leave high school out of itHiring managers are much more interested in your relevant work experience and what sort of work (and grades) you did in college. Also any skills or certifications you may have picked up along the way. Including high school education only makes you look like you’re desperate for filler. When in doubt, leave it out.6. Include your GPAIf your GPA is 3.0 or higher, go ahead and brag about it. And if your GPA within your major is even higher than that, showcase that achievement. They won’t care if you got a C+ in Underwater Basket-weaving. But if you have a 4.0 in Economics, they’ll be sure to pay attention.7. Don’t include your schoolworkWhile your GPA or major can be an asset in your job search, no recruiter really wants to know how you spent your class time (unless you did something really unique and exciting and/or prestigious). Th ey pretty much know what college is about- even specific to your major. Internships are much more relevant and impressive; focus on those.8. Play up your strong pointsIf you have a big internship or some other work experience that’s super impressive, lead with that. If you don’t, it’s okay to lead with other things, such as your grades, your intensive software knowledge, foreign language skills, programming experience, etc. If you have tons of honors but little work experience, you still might have enough oomph to get your foot in the door for an interview.9. Include company descriptionsFor each employer in your work history, include a brief description of the company- particularly if it isn’t a well known brand-name company that people will already be familiar with. Just a sense of the industry, the work done, and the work environment should do it. Keep it brief to maximize space.10. Use bulletsBullet points are an assertive visual way to draw a recruite r’s attention to exactly what you’d like for them to focus on. Go ahead and use this to your advantage. Bonus: you’ll get points for clear and eye-friendly formatting.11. Use action verbsLet your language do the bragging, especially if you don’t have a whole lot of work experience. You can put all the work verbs into sections describing your other experience. We’re thinking: managed, led, supervised, developed, created, built, etc.12. BragGo ahead and include any honors, scholarships, or extracurricular achievements you might have under your belt. Can’t hurt, might help.13. List your relevant skillsRead the job description carefully and multiple times. And be sure to pick out and list all of the skills it says are required for eligibility. Failure to list that you do, in fact, have fluency in that programming language, is your error. The recruiter isn’t responsible for knowing what you assume they should know. Make sure to explicitly list the things they’re looking for as things you can do.14. Don’t include referencesDon’t waste space on the â€Å"References available on request† line. It’s already implied. If they get close enough to hiring you to need them, rest assured that they will ask. You can also include this line in your cover letter instead.Now take a look at TopResume’s infographic showcasing what a perfect resume for recent college graduates would look like:

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Glass Menagerie, a Play by Tennessee Williams

The Glass Menagerie, a Play by Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie  play is a melancholy family drama written by Tennessee Williams. It was first performed on Broadway in 1945, meeting with astounding box-office success and a Drama Critics Circle Award. The Characters In the introduction of The Glass Menagerie, the playwright describes the personalities of the drama’s main characters. Amanda Wingfield: Mother of two adult children, Tom and Laura. â€Å"A little woman of great vitality clinging frantically to another time and place...†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Her life is paranoia†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å"Her foolishness makes her unwittingly cruel†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å"There is tenderness in her slight person†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Laura Wingfield: Six years out of high school. Incredibly shy and introverted. She fixates on her collection of glass figurines. She has â€Å"failed to establish contact with reality†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å"A childhood illness has left her crippled, one leg slightly shorter than the other†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å"She is like a piece of her own glass collection, too exquisitely fragile†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Tom Wingfield: The poetic, frustrated son who works at a mindless warehouse job, supporting his family after his father left home for good. He also serves as the play’s narrator. â€Å"His nature is not remorseless†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å"To escape from a trap (his overbearing mother and crippled sister) he has to act without pity.† Jim O’Connor: The gentleman caller who has dinner with the Wingfields during the second part of the play. He is described as a â€Å"nice, ordinary young man.† Setting The entire play takes place in the Wingfield’s meager apartment, located next to an alley in St. Louis. When Tom begins narrating he draws the audience back to the 1930s. Plot Summary Mrs. Wingfield’s husband abandoned the family â€Å"a long time ago.† He sent a postcard from Mazatlan, Mexico that simply read: â€Å"Hello – and Good-bye!† With the absence of the father, their home has become emotionally and financially stagnant. Amanda clearly loves her children. However, she constantly reprimands her son about his personality, his fledgling job, and even his eating habits. Tom: I haven’t enjoyed one bite of this dinner because of your constant directions on how to eat it. It’s you that makes me rush through meals with your hawk-like attention to every bite I take. Even though Tom’s sister is painfully shy, Amanda expects Laura to be more outgoing. The mother, in contrast, is very sociable and reminisces about her days as a southern belle who once received seventeen gentlemen callers in a single day. Laura has no hopes or ambitions for her future. She quit her typing class because she was too shy to take the speed exam. Laura’s only apparent interest seems to be her old music records and her â€Å"glass menagerie,† a collection of animal figurines. Meanwhile, Tom is itching to leave the household and seek adventure in the wide-open world, instead of being held prisoner by his dependent family and a dead-end job. He often stays out late at night, claiming to go to the movies. (Whether or not he watches the movies or engages in some sort of covert activity is debatable). Amanda wants Tom to find a suitor for Laura. Tom scoffs at the idea at first, but by evening he informs his mother that a gentleman caller will be visiting the following night. Jim O’Connor, the potential suitor, went to high school with both Tom and Laura. During that time, Laura had a crush on the handsome young man. Before Jim visits, Amanda dresses in a beautiful gown, reminding herself of her once-glorious youth. When Jim arrives, Laura is petrified to see him again. She can barely answer the door. When she finally does, Jim shows no trace of remembrance. Out on the fire escape, Jim and Tom discuss their futures. Jim is taking a course on public speaking to become an executive. Tom reveals that he will soon be joining the merchant marines, thereby abandoning his mother and sister. In fact, he purposefully failed to pay the electricity bill in order to join the seaman’s union. During dinner, Laura – faint with shyness and anxiety – spends most of the time on the sofa, away from the others. Amanda, however, is having a wonderful time. The lights suddenly go out, but Tom never confesses the reason! By candlelight, Jim gently approaches the timid Laura. Gradually, she begins to open up to him. He is delighted to learn that they went to school together. He even remembers the nickname he gave to her: â€Å"Blue Roses.† Jim: Now I remember – you always came in late. Laura: Yes, it was so hard for me, getting upstairs. I had that brace on my leg – it clumped so loud! Jim: I never heard any clumping. Laura (wincing at the recollection): To me it sounded like thunder! Jim: Well, well, well. I never even noticed. Jim encourages her to be more self-confident. He even dances with her. Unfortunately, he bumps a table, knocking over a glass unicorn figurine. The horn breaks, making the figurine just like the rest of the horses. Surprisingly, Laura is able to laugh about the situation. She clearly likes Jim. Finally, he declares: Somebody needs to build your confidence up and make you proud instead of shy and turning away and- blushing- Somebody ought to- ought to- kiss you, Laura! They kiss. For a moment, the audience might be lured into thinking that everything will work out happily. For a moment, we can imagine: Jim and Laura falling in love.Amanda’s dreams for Laura’s security coming true.Tom finally escaping the â€Å"trap† of family obligations. Yet, a moment after the kiss, Jim backs away and decides, â€Å"I shouldn’t have done that.† He then reveals that he is engaged to a nice girl named Betty. When he explains that he will not be back to visit again, Laura bravely smiles. She offers him the broken figurine as a souvenir. After Jim leaves, Amanda scolds her son for bringing an already-spoken-for gentleman caller. As they fight, Tom exclaims: Tom: The more you shout about my selfishness to me the quicker I’ll go, and I won’t go to the movies! Then, Tom assumes the role of the narrator as he did in the play’s beginning. He explains to the audience how he soon left his family behind, running away just as his father did. He spent years traveling abroad, yet something still haunted him. He escaped the Wingfield household, but his dear sister Laura was always on his mind. The Final Lines Oh, Laura, Laura, I tried to leave you behind me, but I am more faithful than I intended to be! I reach for a cigarette, I cross the street, I run into the movies or a bar, I buy a drink, I speak to the nearest stranger- anything that can blow your candles out! For nowadays the world is lit by lightning! Blow out your candles, Laura – and so good-bye†¦

Monday, November 4, 2019

Week 5 Discuss 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 5 Discuss 2 - Essay Example Violence is defined as doing harm to an individual, whether mental or physical. Thus, from this definition, bullying is regarded as a form of violence (Bullying Statistics, 2009). Violence is against the law, and bullying is not considered as a form of violence unless it involves an attack. Majority of people see bullying as an unacceptable form of behavior while bullying is seen as a normal part of life (Boyle, 2011). The Second Amendment gives the right to bear arms, and it is completely binding on the states. Therefore, it limits their capability to create solutions to social issues that suit local values and needs (Stohr, 2010). The basis for the Supreme Court’s decision is on the Fourteenth Amendment, which transforms the meaning of the Second Amendment. They argue that the Framers of the Reconstruction Amendment â€Å"intended the phrase â€Å"privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States† to include the right to keep and bear arms, which was thus explicitly placed beyond â€Å"abridgement† by the states† (Merkel and Uviller, 2002, p14). Thus, the Second Amendment is binding on the states. The Amendment has influenced gun control and gun ownership concerning who has the right to bear and keep arms. The topic has brought intense debate with some opposing and others supporting the decision made by the Supreme Court. Stohr, G. (2010, June 29). States must honor gun rights, U.S. High Court says. Bloomberg. Retrieved from

Friday, November 1, 2019

US - Russian relations; how the embargo is affecting trade and the Outline

US - Russian relations; how the embargo is affecting trade and the economy - Outline Example The U.S government, for instance strongly condemned Russia’s annexation of Crimea2. The U.S imposed sanctions against 64 Russian individuals and organizations for destabilizing Ukraine. This paper will discuss how the recent US embargo on Russia is negatively affecting trade and the economy (in Russia), and how or if it may also affect a particular nation within the European Union. Congressional action in the U.S. has focused on providing help to the new Ukrainian government and also the sanctions against Russia for its annexation of Crimea. President Obama warned Russia that it would face several costs for its ongoing actions in Ukraine3. For instance, the United States suspended most bilateral cooperation with Russia. It also announced that it would suspend several projects that were planned under the guidance of U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission. The U.S government also put restrictions on defence-related support to Russia especially the exports4. The United States issued an Executive Order that imposed asset freezes and visa bans against the people that undermined the democratic processes laid down in Ukraine. These people included 23 high-ranking Russian government officials and parliamentarians, 4 wealthy businesspersons in Putin’s inner circle. The government also placed sanctions on organizations that included bank, energy companies and other organizations that had a link to Putin’s inner circle. All these were done as part of an action to prevent further escalation of the crisis in Ukraine5. As stated earlier, several countries and regions including the U.S, EU and Japan placed sanctions on Russia following its actions in Ukraine. Several countries including Albania, Canada, Moldovia, Australia, Switzerland and Montenegro followed suit6. However, the effects of the U.S sanctions on Russia are different to those of the other